Sex manual - Wikipedia
Early sex manuals
Philaenis of Samos Wikipedia
Philaenis of Samos (in Greek, Φιλαινίς) was apparently a Greek courtesan of the 4th or 3rd centuries BC. She was commonly said to be the author of a manual on courtship and sex. The poet Aeschrion of Samos denied that his compatriot Philaenis was really the author of this notorious work.
Brief fragments of the manual, including the introductory words, have been rediscovered among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (P.Oxy. 2891). It begins: “Philaenis of Samos, daughter of Ocymenes, wrote the following things for those wanting ... life ...”Adapted from the translation in the online catalogue Oxyrhynchus: A City and its Texts (see below)
- William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (based on ancient references, predating the rediscovery of the fragments, and mistakenly stating that the work was a poem)
- Papyrus and description, part of the online exhibition Oxyrhynchus: A City and its Texts (The Egypt Exploration Society) http://www.papyrology.ox.ac.uk/POxy/VExhibition/scribes_scholars/philaenis.html
Philaenis, The Art of Love: Early second century ADBeginning with techniques of seduction, the book is believed to have treated the sexual arts systematically, including descriptions of sexual positions, aphrodisiacs, abortifacients, and cosmetics. The rediscovery demonstrates that a real tradition of technical manuals underlay the more playful Art of Love written in Latin verse by Ovid in the late 1st century BC.
Well-heeled book-owners among the upper classes at Oxyrhynchus could get professional advice on matters of the heart from this well known manual on the ars amatoria which circulated widely in the ancient world. It is also one of the few technical works believed to have been written by a woman. Of Hellenistic date, her work was regarded as an authoritative guide for the voluptuary. She treated the art of love systematically, including descriptions of sexual positions, aphrodisiacs, abortifacients, and cosmetics. We know her text only from this papyrus fragment of a professionally produced book written in a fair-sized book hand, and preserving the beginning of the work (or an epitome of it): Fr. 1 col. 1, lines 1-4:
‘Philaenis of Samos, daughter of Okymenes wrote the following things for those wanting ... life ...’
The beginning is reminiscent of the opening of Herodotus’ Histories. Philaenis, however, begins with ‘How to Make Passes’ (peri peirasmon), then a section on seduction through flattery (‘say that he or she is “godlike”...isotheon’), followed by a section on kissing (peri philemat[on]). The style was simple, the treatment summary and matter of fact. The work represents the technical prose tradition on which Ovid drew in his elegiac didactic poem Ars Amatoria.
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri vol. XXIX no. 2891
Ars Amatoria ("The Art of Love") Main article: Ars Amatoria
The Ars Amatoria is a didactic elegiac poem in three books which sets out to teach the arts of seduction and love. The first book is addressed to men and teaches them how to seduce women, the second, also to men, teaches one how to keep a lover. The third is addressed to women and teaches seduction techniques. The first book opens with an invocation to Venus in which Ovid establishes himself as a praeceptor amoris (1.17) a teacher of love. Ovid describes the places one can go to find a lover, like the theater, a triumph, which is thoroughly described, or arena, and ways to get the girl to take notice, including seducing her covertly at a banquet. Choosing the right time is significant as are getting into her associates' confidence. Ovid emphasizes care of the body for the lover. Mythological digressions include a piece on the Rape of the Sabine women, Pasiphae, and Ariadne. Book 2 invokes Apollo and begins with a telling of the story of Icarus. Ovid advises lovers to avoid giving too many gifts, keep up their appearance, hide affairs, complement her, and ingratiate themselves with slaves to stay on their lover's good side. The care of Venus for procreation is described as is Apollo's aid in keeping a lover; Ovid then digresses on the story of Vulcan's trap for Venus and Mars. The book ends with Ovid asking his "students" to spread his fame. Book 3, opens with a vindication of women's abilities and Ovid's resolution to arm women against his teaching in the first two books. Ovid gives women detailed instructions on appearance telling them to avoid too many adornments. He advises women to read elegiac poetry, learn to play games, sleep with people of different ages, flirt, and dissemble. Throughout the book, Ovid playfully interjects, criticizing himself for undoing all his didactic work to men and mythologically digresses on the story of Procris and Cephalus. The book ends with his wish that women will follow his advice and spread his fame saying Naso magister erat, "Ovid was our teacher".
Ovid's Ars Amatoria, Wikipedia
The Ars amatoria (English: The Art of Love) is an instructional book series elegy in three books by Ancient Roman poet Ovid. It was written in 2 AD. It is about teaching basic Gentlemanly male and female relationship skills and techniques.
Background Book one of Ars Amatoria was written to show a man how to find a woman. In book two, Ovid shows how to keep her. The third book, written two years after the first books were published, gives women advice on how to win and keep the love of a man ("I have just armed the Greeks against the Amazons; now, Penthesilea, it remains for me to arm thee against the Greeks...").
The Ars amatoria can be called a burlesque satire on didactic poetry. It claims: Aeacidae Chiron, ego sum praeceptor Amoris ("As Chiron was to Achilles, so I am to Cupid"—in other words, "I pacified the wild Cupid"). Ovid offers advice to men on subjects such as, how to seduce and keep a woman, and also notably offers women advice on how to be attractive to men. He advises that, "if one is accompanying a lady to the horse-racing in the Circus Maximus, one should gallantly brush the dust from her gown. And if there isn't any dust there, brush it nonetheless. Also, "A young man should promise the moon to the object of his affections in letters—even a beggar can be rich in promises. A small woman, meanwhile, would be better advised to receive her suitor lying down ... but should make sure that her feet are hidden under her dress, so that her true size is not disclosed.".
Although Ovid protests Siqua fides arti, quam longo fecimus usu, / Credite: praestabunt carmina nostra fidem ("If you trust art's promise that we've long employed / our songs will offer you their promise"), and his erotic advice indicates a supposed broad understanding of female psychology, in part he is following a literary tradition, especially the two previous exponents of the Latin love-elegy, Propertius and Tibullus, and the (mostly lost) erotic poetry of the Greek Hellenistic period.
Content The first two books, aimed at men, contain sections which cover such topics as 'not forgetting her birthday', 'letting her miss you - but not for long' and 'not asking about her age'. The third gives similar advice to women, sample themes include: 'making up, but in private', 'being wary of false lovers' and 'trying young and older lovers'. Although the book was finished around 2 AD, much of the advice he gives is applicable to any day and age. His intent is often more profound than the brilliance of the surface suggests. In connection with the revelation that the theatre is a good place to meet girls, for instance, Ovid, the classically educated trickster, refers to the story of the rape of the Sabine women. It has been argued that this passage represents a radical attempt to redefine relationships between men and women in Roman society, advocating a move away from paradigms of force and possession, towards concepts of mutual fulfilment. The superficial brilliance, however, befuddles even scholars (paradoxically, Ovid consequently tended in the 20th century to be underrated as lacking in seriousness). The standard situations and cliches of the subject are treated in an entertainment-intended way, with details from Greek mythology, everyday Roman life and general human experience. Ovid likens love to military service, supposedly requiring the strictest obedience to the woman. He advises women to make their lovers artificially jealous so that they do not become neglectful through complacency. Perhaps accordingly, a slave should be instructed to interrupt the lovers' tryst with the cry 'Perimus' ('We are lost!'), compelling the young lover to hide in fear in a cupboard. Readers can follow the allusive chatter of the poet with a smile, without ever being able to be quite certain how seriously he means any of it. The tension implicit in this uncommitted tone is reminiscent of a flirt, and in fact, the semi-serious, semi-ironic form is ideally suited to Ovid's subject matter.
It is striking that through all his ironic discourse, Ovid never becomes ribald or obscene. Of course 'embarrassing' matters can never be entirely excluded, for alma Dione praecipite nostrum est, quod pudet, inquit, opus '..."what you blush to tell", says nourishing Venus, "is the most important part of the whole matter"'. Sexual matters in the narrower sense are only dealt with at the end of each book, so here again, form and content converge in a subtly ingenious way. Things, so to speak, always end up in bed. But here, too, Ovid retains his style and his discretion, avoiding any pornographic tinge. The end of the second book deals with the pleasures of simultaneous orgasm. Somewhat atypically for a Roman, the poet confesses, Odi concubitus, qui non utrumque resolvunt. Hoc est, cur pueri tangar amore minus ('I abhor intercourse which does not relieve both. This is also why I find less pleasure in the love of boys').
At the end of the third part, as in the Kama Sutra, the sexual positions are 'declined', and from them women are exhorted to choose the most suitable, taking the proportions of their own bodies into careful consideration. Ovid's tongue is again discovered in his cheek when his recommendation that tall women should not straddle their lovers is exemplified at the expense of the tallest hero of the Trojan Wars: Quod erat longissima, numquam Thebais Hectoreo nupta resedit equo ('Because she was very tall, the Theban bride (Andromache) never sat on her Hectorian horse').
The polysemous word ars in the title is not, then, to be translated coldly as 'technique', but here really means 'art' in the sense of civilized refinement.
Appropriately for its subject, the Ars Amatoria is composed in elegiac couplets, rather than the dactylic hexameters, which are more usually associated with the didactic poem.
Reception The work was such a popular success that the poet wrote a sequel, Remedia Amoris (Remedies for Love). At an early recitatio, however, S. Vivianus Rhesus is noted as having walked out in disgust. The assumption that the 'licentiousness' of the Ars amatoria was responsible in part for Ovid's relegation (banishment) by Augustus in AD 8 is dubious, and seems rather to reflect modern sensibilities than historical fact. For one thing, the Ars amatoria had been in circulation for eight years by the time of the relegation, and the book postdates the Julian Marriage Laws by eighteen years. Secondly, it is hardly likely that Augustus, after forty years unchallenged in the purple, felt the poetry of Ovid to be a serious threat or even embarrassment to his social policies. Thirdly, Ovid's own statement from his Black Sea exile that his relegation was because of 'carmen et error' ('a song and a mistake') is, for many reasons, hardly admissible.
It is more probable that Ovid was somehow caught up in factional politics connected with the succession: Postumus Agrippa, Augustus' adopted son, and Augustus' granddaughter, Vipsania Julilla, were both relegated at around the same time. This would also explain why Ovid was not reprieved when Augustus was succeeded by Agrippa's rival Tiberius. It is likely, then, that the Ars amatoria was used as an excuse for the relegation. This would be neither the first nor the last time a 'crackdown on immorality' disguised an uncomfortable political secret.
Legacy The Ars amatoria created considerable interest at the time of its publication. On a lesser scale, Martial's epigrams take a similar context of advising readers on love. Modern literature has been continually influenced by the Ars Amatoria, which has presented additional information on the relationship between Ovid's poem and more current writings. The Ars Amatoria was included in the syllabuses of mediaeval schools from the second half of the 11th cent., and its influence on 12th and 13th cent. European literature was so great that the German mediaevalist and palaeographer Ludwig Traube dubbed the entire age 'aetas Ovidiana' ('the Ovidian epoch'). To this day, it has remained a topic of study in Latin literature classes in high schools and colleges around the world.
As in the years immediately following its publication, the Ars Amatoria has historically been victim of moral outcry. All of Ovid's works were burned by Savonarola in Florence, Italy in 1497; Christopher Marlowe's translation was banned in 1599, and another English translation of the Ars amatoria was seized by U.S. Customs in 1930. Despite the actions against the work, Ars amatoria has remained a topic of study in Latin literature classes in high schools and colleges around the world.
It is possible that Edmond Rostand's fictionalized portrayal of Cyrano de Bergerac makes an allusion to the Ars amatoria: the theme of the erotic and seductive power of poetry is highly suggestive of Ovid's poem, and Bergerac's nose, a distinguishing feature invented by Rostand, calls to mind Ovid's cognomen, Naso (from nasus, 'large-nosed').
- ^ Ov, Ars am. 1,17
- ^ Ov, Ars am. 3,791–2
- ^ Dutton, Jacqueline, The Rape of the Sabine Women, Ovid Ars Amatoria Book I: 101-134, master's dissertation, University of Johannesburg, 2005
- ^ Ov, Ars am. 3,769
- ^ Ov, Ars am. 2,683
- ^ Ov, Ars am. 3,778
- ^ Agr. De art. am. 378-9
- ^ Ov. Tr., 2.207
- ^ F. Norwood (1964), 'The Riddle of Ovid's Relegatio', in Classical Philology. 58: 150-63
- ^ e.g. Gibson, R., Green, S., Sharrock, A., (eds.) 'The Art of Love: Bimillennial Essays on Ovid's Ars Amatoria and Remedia Amoris', OUP 2007; Sprung, Robert C., 'The Reception of Ovid's Ars Amatoria in the Age of Goethe', Senior Thesis, Harvard College, 1984.
- ^ McKinley, K.L., Reading the Ovidian Heroine, Brill, Leiden, 2001, xiii
- ^ Haight, A. L. and Grannis, C. B., Banned Books 387 BC to 1978 AD, R.R. Bowker & Co, 1978
- Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ars Amatoria
- Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ars Amatoria
- An English translation of Amores and Ars Amatoria
- In Latin (book I) - In Latin (book II) . In Latin (book III)
- Poems by Ovid: Metamorphoses - Amores - Ars Amatoria - Remedia Amoris - Heroides - Fasti - Tristia - Epistulae ex Ponto - Ibis - Medicamina Faciei Femineae
In Indian literature, Kāmashastra refers to the tradition of works on Kāma: love, erotics, or sensual pleasures. It therefore has a practical orientation, similar to that of Arthashastra, the tradition of texts on politics and government. Just as the former instructs kings and ministers about government, Kāmashastra aims to instruct the townsman (nāgarika) in the way to attain enjoyment and fulfillment.
The earliest text of the Kama Shastra tradition, said to have contained a vast amount of information, is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull, Shiva's doorkeeper, who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god Shiva and his wife Parvati. During the 8th century BC, Shvetaketu, son of Uddalaka, produced a summary of Nandi's work, but this "summary" was still too vast to be accessible. A scholar called Babhravya, together with a group of his disciples, produced a summary of Shvetaketu's summary, which nonetheless remained a huge and encyclopaedic tome. Between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC, several authors reproduced different parts of the Babhravya group's work in various specialist treatises. Among the authors, those whose names are known are Charayana, Ghotakamukha, Gonardiya, Gonikaputra, Suvarnanabha, and Dattaka.
However, the oldest available text on this subject is the Kama Sutra ascribed to Vātsyāyana who is often erroneously called "Mallanaga Vātsyāyana". Yashodhara, in his commentary on the Kama Sutra, attributes the origin of erotic science to Mallanaga, the "prophet of the Asuras", implying that the Kama Sutra originated in prehistoric times. The attribution of the name "Mallanaga" to Vātsyāyana is due to the confusion of his role as editor of the Kama Sutra with the role of the mythical creator of erotic science. Vātsyāyana's birth date is not accurately known, but he must have lived earlier than the 7th century since he is referred to by Subandhu in his poem Vāsavadattā. On the other hand Vātsyāyana must have been familiar with the Arthashastra of Kautilya. Vātsyāyana refers to and quotes a number of texts on this subject, which unfortunately have been lost.
Following Vātsyāyana, a number of authors wrote on Kāmashastra, some writing independent manuals of erotics, while others commented on Vātsyāyana. Later well-known works include Kokkaka's Ratirahasya (13th century) and Anangaranga of Kalyanamalla (16th century). The most well-known commentator on Vātsyāyana is Jayamangala (13th century).
EtymologyKaama (काम kāma) is a Sanskrit word that has the general meanings of "wish", "desire", and "intention" in addition to the specific meanings of "pleasure" and "(sexual) love". Used as a proper name it refers to Kamadeva, the Hindu god of Love.
List of Kamashastra works
- Kâmashâstra of Nandi or Nandikeshvara. (1000)
- Vâtsyâyanasûtrasara, by the Kashmiri Kshemendra: eleventh-century commentary on the Kama Sutra
- Kâmashâstra, by Auddalaki Shvetaketu (500 chapters)
- Kâmashâstra or Bâbhravyakârikâ
- Kâmashâstra, by Chârâyana
- Kâmashâstra, by Gonikâputra
- Kâmashâstra, by Dattaka (according to legend, the author was transformed to a woman during a certain time)
- Kâmashâstra or Ratinirnaya, by Suvarnanâb
Medieval and modern texts
- Anangaranga, by Kalyanmalla
- Dattakasûtra, by King Mâdhava II of the Ganga dynasty of Mysore
- Janavashya by Kallarasa: based on Kakkoka's Ratirahasya
- Jayamangala or Jayamangla, by Yashodhara: important commentary on the Kama Sutra
- Jaya, by Devadatta Shâstrî: a twentieth-century Hindi commentary on the Kama Sutra
- Kâmasamuha, by Ananta (fifteenth century)
- Kama Sutra
- Kuchopanishad or Kuchumâra Tantra, by Kuchumâra
- Kuchopanisad, by Kuchumara (tenth century)
- Kuttanimata, by the eighth-century Kashmiri poet Damodaragupta (Dāmodaragupta's Kuṭṭanīmata, though often included in lists of this sort, is really a novel written in Sanskrit verse, in which an aged bawd [kuṭṭanī] named Vikarālā gives advice to a young, beautiful, but as yet unsuccessful courtesan of Benares; most of the advice comes in the form of two long moral tales, one about a heartless and therefore successful courtesan, Mañjarī, and the other about a tender-hearted and therefore foolish girl, Hāralatā, who makes the mistake of falling in love with a client and eventually dies of a broken heart.)
- Mânasollâsa or Abhilashitartha Chintâmani by King Someshvara or Somadeva III of the Châlukya dynasty by Kalyâni A part of this encyclopedia, the Yoshidupabhoga, is devoted to the Kamashastra. (Manasolasa or Abhilashitachintamani)  
- Nagarasarvasva or Nagarsarvasva, by Bhikshu Padmashrî, a tenth- or eleventh-century Buddhist
- Panchashâyaka, Panchasakya, or Panchsayaka, by Jyotirîshvara Kavishekhara (fourteenth century)
- Rasamanjari or Rasmanjari, by the poet Bhânudatta
- Ratikallolini, by Dikshita Samaraja
- Ratirahasya, by Kokkoka
- Ratimanjari, by the poet Jayadeva: a synthesis of the Smaradîpika by Minanatha
- Ratiratnapradîpika, by Praudha Devarâja, fifteenth-century Maharaja of Vijayanagara
- Shringararasaprabandhadîpika, by Kumara Harihara
- Smaradîpika, by Minanatha
- Samayamatrka, by Ksemendra
- Shrngaradipika, by Harihar
- Smarapradîpika or Smara Pradipa, by Gunâkara (son of Vachaspati)
- Sûtravritti, by Naringha Shastri: eighteenth-century commentary on the Kama Sutra
Kamashastra and Kāvya poetryOne of the reasons for interest in these ancient manuals is their intimate connection with Sanskrit ornate poetry (Kāvya). The poets were supposed to be proficient in the Kamashastra. The entire approach to love and sex in Kāvya poetry is governed by the Kamashastra.
- Arthur Anthony Macdonell. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. p. 66.
- The Complete Kama Sutra, Translated by Daniélou, Alain. ISBN 0-89281-492-6
The Kama Sutra Wikipedia
The Kama Sutra (Sanskrit: कामसूत्र pronunciation (help·info), Kāmasūtra) is an ancient Indian Hindu text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by Vātsyāyana. A portion of the work consists of practical advice on sexual intercourse. It is largely in prose, with many inserted anustubh poetry verses. "Kāma" which is one of the three goals of Hindu life, means sensual or sexual pleasure, and "sūtra" literally means a thread or line that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. Contrary to popular perception, especially in the western world, Kama sutra is not just an exclusive sex manual; it presents itself as a guide to a virtuous and gracious living that discusses the nature of love, family life and other aspects pertaining to pleasure oriented faculties of human life.
The Kama Sutra is the oldest and most notable of a group of texts known generically as Kama Shastra (Sanskrit: Kāma Śāstra). Traditionally, the first transmission of Kama Shastra or "Discipline of Kama" is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull, Shiva's doorkeeper, who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god and his wife Parvati and later recorded his utterances for the benefit of mankind.
Historians attribute Kamasutra to be composed between 400 BCE and 200 CE. John Keay says that the Kama Sutra is a compendium that was collected into its present form in the 2nd century CE.
Vatsyayana's Kama Sutra has 1250 verses, distributed in 36 chapters, which are further organized into 7 parts. According to both the Burton and Doniger translations, the contents of the book are structured into 7 parts like the following:
1. General remarks: 5 chapters on contents of the book, three aims and priorities of life, the acquisition of knowledge, conduct of the well-bred townsman, reflections on intermediaries who assist the lover in his enterprises.
2. Amorous advances/Sexual union: 10 chapters on stimulation of desire, types of embraces, caressing and kisses, marking with nails, biting and marking with teeth, on copulation (positions), slapping by hand and corresponding moaning, virile behavior in women, superior coition and oral sex, preludes and conclusions to the game of love. It describes 64 types of sexual acts.
3. Acquiring a wife: 5 chapters on forms of marriage, relaxing the girl, obtaining the girl, managing alone, union by marriage.
4. Duties and privileges of the wife: 2 chapters on conduct of the only wife and conduct of the chief wife and other wives.
5. Other men's wives: 6 chapters on behavior of woman and man, how to get acquainted, examination of sentiments, the task of go-between, the king's pleasures, behavior in the women's quarters.
6. About courtesans: 6 chapters on advice of the assistants on the choice of lovers, looking for a steady lover, ways of making money, renewing friendship with a former lover, occasional profits, profits and losses.
7. Occult practices: 2 chapters on improving physical attractions, arousing a weakened sexual power.
Pleasure and spirituality
Some Indian philosophies follow the "four main goals of life", known as the purusharthas:
- Dharma: Virtuous living.
- Artha: Material prosperity.
- Kama: Aesthetic and erotic pleasure.
- Moksha: Liberation.
"Dharma is better than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama. But Artha should always be first practised by the king for the livelihood of men is to be obtained from it only. Again, Kama being the occupation of public women, they should prefer it to the other two, and these are exceptions to the general rule." (Kama Sutra 1.2.14)Of the first three, virtue is the highest goal, a secure life the second and pleasure the least important. When motives conflict, the higher ideal is to be followed. Thus, in making money virtue must not be compromised, but earning a living should take precedence over pleasure, but there are exceptions.
In childhood, Vātsyāyana says, a person should learn how to make a living; youth is the time for pleasure, and as years pass one should concentrate on living virtuously and hope to escape the cycle of rebirth.The Kama Sutra acknowledges that the senses can be dangerous: 'Just as a horse in full gallop, blinded by the energy of his own speed, pays no attention to any post or hole or ditch on the path, so two lovers, blinded by passion, in the friction of sexual battle, are caught up in their fierce energy and pay no attention to danger'(2.7.33).
Also the Buddha preached a Kama Sutra, which is located in the Atthakavagga (sutra number 1). This Kama Sutra, however, is of a very different nature as it warns against the dangers that come with the search for pleasures of the senses.
Many in the Western world wrongly consider the Kama Sutra to be a manual for tantric sex. While sexual practices do exist within the very wide tradition of Hindu Tantra, the Kama Sutra is not a Tantric text, and does not touch upon any of the sexual rites associated with some forms of Tantric practice.
The most widely known English translation of the Kama Sutra was privately printed in 1883. It is usually attributed to renowned orientalist and author Sir Richard Francis Burton, but the chief work was done by the pioneering Indian archaeologist, Bhagwanlal Indraji, under the guidance of Burton's friend, the Indian civil servant Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, and with the assistance of a student, Shivaram Parshuram Bhide. Burton acted as publisher, while also furnishing the edition with footnotes whose tone ranges from the jocular to the scholarly. Burton says the following in its introduction:
It may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that Vatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the English language. It happened thus. While translating with the pundits the 'Anunga Runga, or the stage of love', reference was frequently found to be made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of that opinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions were asked who the sage was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was the author of the standard work on love in Sanskrit literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state. The copy of the manuscript obtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares, Calcutta and Jaipur for copies of the manuscript from Sanskrit libraries in those places. Copies having been obtained, they were then compared with each other, and with the aid of a Commentary called 'Jayamanglia' a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared, and from this copy the English translation was made. The following is the certificate of the chief pundit:
'The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing four different copies of the work. I had the assistance of a Commentary called "Jayamangla" for correcting the portion in the first five parts, but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining portion, because, with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, all the other copies I had were far too incorrect. However, I took that portion as correct in which the majority of the copies agreed with each other.'In the introduction to her own translation, Wendy Doniger, professor of the history of religions at the University of Chicago, writes that Burton "managed to get a rough approximation of the text published in English in 1883, nasty bits and all". The philologist and Sanskritist Professor Chlodwig Werba, of the Institute of Indology at the University of Vienna, regards the 1883 translation as being second only in accuracy to the academic German-Latin text published by Richard Schmidt in 1897.
A noteworthy translation by Indra Sinha was published in 1980. In the early 1990s its chapter on sexual positions began circulating on the internet as an independent text and today is often assumed to be the whole of the Kama Sutra.
Alain Daniélou contributed a noteworthy translation called The Complete Kama Sutra in 1994. This translation, originally into French, and thence into English, featured the original text attributed to Vatsyayana, along with a medieval and a modern commentary. Unlike the 1883 version, Alain Daniélou's new translation preserves the numbered verse divisions of the original, and does not incorporate notes in the text. He includes English translations of two important commentaries:
- The Jayamangala commentary, written in Sanskrit by Yashodhara during the Middle Ages, as page footnotes.
- A modern commentary in Hindi by Devadatta Shastri, as endnotes.
An English translation by Wendy Doniger and Sudhir Kakar, an Indian psychoanalyst and senior fellow at Center for Study of World Religions at Harvard University, was published by Oxford University Press in 2002. Doniger contributed the Sanskrit expertise while Kakar provided a psychoanalytic interpretation of the text.
- Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Kama Sutra
- History of sex in India
- Khajuraho Group of Monuments
- Lazzat Un Nisa
- List of Indian inventions and discoveries
- Song of Songs
- The Perfumed Garden
- Doniger, Wendy (2003). Kamasutra - Oxford World's Classics. Oxford University Press. p. i. ISBN 978-0-19-283982-4. "The Kamasutra is the oldest extant Hindu textbook of erotic love. It was composed in Sanskrit, the literary language of ancient India, probably in North India and probably sometime in the third century"
- Coltrane, Scott (1998). Gender and families. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8039-9036-4.
- Common misconceptions about Kama Sutra. "The Kama Sutra is neither exclusively a sex manual nor, as also commonly used art, a sacred or religious work. It is certainly not a tantric text. In opening with a discussion of the three aims of ancient Hindu life – dharma, artha and kama – Vatsyayana's purpose is to set kama, or enjoyment of the senses, in context. Thus dharma or virtuous living is the highest aim, artha, the amassing of wealth is next, and kama is the least of three." —Indra Sinha.
- Carroll, Janell (2009). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-495-60274-3.
- Devi, Chandi (2008). From Om to Orgasm: The Tantra Primer for Living in Bliss. AuthorHouse. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-4343-4960-6.
- For Kama Sutra as the most notable of the kāma śhāstra literature see: Flood (1996), p. 65.
- For Nandi reporting the utterance see: p. 3. Daniélou, Alain. The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text. Inner Traditions: 1993. ISBN 0-89281-525-6.
- For the Kama Sutra as a compilation, and dating to second century CE, see: Kkgeay, pp. 81, 103.
- book, see index pages by Wendy Doniger, also translation by Burton
- Date checked: 29 March 2007 Burton and Doniger
- For the Dharma Śāstras as discussing the "four main goals of life" (dharma, artha, kāma, and moksha) see: Hopkins, p. 78.
- For dharma, artha, and kama as "brahmanic householder values" see: Flood (1996), p. 17.
- For definition of the term पुरुष-अर्थ (puruṣa-artha) as "any of the four principal objects of human life, i.e. धर्म (dharma), अर्थ (artha), काम (kāma), and मोक्ष (mokṣa)" see: Apte, p. 626, middle column, compound #1.
- For kāma as one of the four goals of life (kāmārtha) see: Flood (1996), p. 65.
- For definition of kāma as "erotic and aesthetic pleasure" see: Flood (1996), p. 17.
- Quotation from the translation by Richard Burton taken from . Text accessed 3 April 2007.
- Book I, Chapter ii, Lines 2-4 Vatsyayana Kamasutram Electronic Sanskrit edition: Titus Texts, University of Frankfurt bālye vidyāgrahaṇādīn arthān, kāmaṃ ca yauvane, sthāvire dharmaṃ mokṣaṃ ca
- McConnachie (2007), pp. 123–125.
- McConnachie (2007), p. 233.
- Sinha, p. 33.
- The Complete Kama Sutra by Alain Daniélou
- Stated in the translation's preface
- Balagangadhara, S.N (2007). Antonio De Nicholas, Krishnan Ramaswamy, Aditi Banerjee. ed. Invading the Sacred. Rupa & Co. pp. 431–433. ISBN 978-81-291-1182-1.
- McConnachie (2007), p. 232.
- Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4. (fourth revised & enlarged edition).
- Avari, Burjor (2007). India: The Ancient Past. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35616-9.
- Daniélou, Alain (1993), The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text, Inner Traditions, ISBN 0-89281-525-6.
- Sudhir Kakar and Doniger, Wendy (2002), Kamasutra (Oxford World's Classics), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-283982-9.
- Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
- Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5.
- Hopkins, Thomas J. (1971). The Hindu Religious Tradition. Cambridge: Dickenson Publishing Company, Inc..
- Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
- McConnachie, James (2007). The Book of Love: In Search of the Kamasutra. London: Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-84354-373-2.
- Sinha, Indra (1999). The Cybergypsies. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-600-34158-5.
- Find more about Kama Sutra at Wikipedia's sister projects
- Definitions and translations from Wiktionary
- Media from Commons
- Learning resources from Wikiversity
- News stories from Wikinews
- Quotations from Wikiquote
- Source texts from Wikisource
- Textbooks from Wikibooks
- Sir Richard Burton's English translation on Indohistory.com
- The Kama Sutra in audio format from LibriVox
- The Kama Sutra in the original Sanskrit provided by the TITUS project
- Kama Sutra at Project Gutenberg
Medieval sex manuals include the lost works of Elephantis, by Constantine the African; Ananga Ranga, a 12th century collection of Hindu erotic works; and The Perfumed Garden for the Soul's Recreation, a 16th century Arabic work by Sheikh Nefzaoui. The fifteenth-century Speculum al foderi (The Mirror of Coitus) is the first medieval European work to discuss sexual positions. Constantine the African also penned a medical treatise on sexuality, known as Liber de coitu.
Elephantis (fl. late 1st c. BC) was a Greek poetess apparently renowned in the classical world as the author of a notorious sex manual. Her works have not survived.
According to Suetonius, the Roman Emperor Tiberius took a complete set of her works with him when he retreated to his resort on Capri.
One of the poems in the Priapeia refers to her books:
- Obscenas rigido deo tabellas
dicans ex Elephantidos libellis
dat donum Lalage rogatque, temptes,
si pictas opus edat ad figuras.
And an epigram by the Roman poet Martial, which Smithers and Burton included in their collection of poems concerning Priapus, wrote:
- Quales nec Didymi sciunt puellae,
Nec molles Elephantidos libelli,
Sunt illic Veneris novae figurae
She also wrote a manual about cosmetics and another about abortives.
- Ian Michael Plant (2004). Women writers of Ancient Greece and Rome: an anthology. University of Oklahoma Press.
Ananga Ranga, Wikipedia
The Ananga Ranga (Stage of Love) or Kamaledhiplava (Boat in the Sea of Love) is an Indian sex manual written by Kalyana malla in the 15th or 16th century. The poet wrote the work in honor of Lad Khan, son of Ahmed Khan Lodi. He was related to the Lodi dynasty, which from 1451 to 1526 ruled from Delhi. Later commentators have said it is aimed specifically at preventing the separation of a husband and wife. This work is often compared to the Kama Sutra, on which it draws.
It was translated into English in the year 1885, under the editorship of Sir Richard Francis Burton and consequently burnt by his wife Isabel Burton in the weeks following his death.
"Satisfaction and enjoyment comes for a man with possession of a beautiful woman. Men marry because of the peaceful gathering, love, and comfort and they often get nice and attractive women. But the men do not give the women full satisfaction The reason is due to the ignorance of the writings of the Kamashastra and the disdain of the different types of women. These men view women only from the perspective of an animal. They are foolish and spiritless".
The work was intended to show that a woman is enough for a man. The book provides instructions in how a husband can promote the love for his wife through sexual pleasure. The husband can so greatly enjoy living with his wife, that it is as if he had lived with 32 different women. The increasingly varied sexual pleasures are able to produce harmony, thus preventing the married couple from getting tired of one another. In addition to the extensive catalogue of sexual positions for both partners, there are details regarding foreplay and lure.
The contents of the chapters of Burton's translation of the Ananga Ranga are as follows:
- Chapter I: considers the four classes of women
- Chapter II: Of the Various Seats of Passion in Women
- Chapter III: Of the Different Kinds of Men and Women
- Chapter IV: Description of the General Qualities, Characteristics, Temperaments, Etc., of Women.
- Chapter V: Characteristics of the Women of Various Lands
- Chapter VI: Treating of Vashikarana
- Chapter VII: Of Different Signs in Men and Women
- Chapter VIII: Treating of External Enjoyments
- Chapter IX: Treating of Internal Enjoyments in Its Various Forms
- Appendix I: Astrology in Connection With Marriage
- Appendix II: (considers a variety of alchemical recipes, which are either potentially lethal, or completely ineffective as a remedy, or both)
The Ratirahasya (Sanskrit रतिरहस्य ) (translated in English as Secrets of Love, also known as the Koka Shastra) is a medieval Indian sex manual written by Kokkoka, a poet, who is variously described as Koka or Koka Pundit. The exact date of its writing is not known, but it is estimated the text was written in the 11th or 12th century. It is speculated that Ratirahasya was written to please a king by the name Venudutta. Kokkoka describes himself in the book as siddha patiya pandita, i.e. "an ingenious man among learned men". The manual was written in Sanskrit.
Unlike the Kama Sutra, which is an ancient sex manual related to Hindu literature, Ratirahasya deals with medieval Indian society. During the medieval age, India became more conservative compared to ancient India, freedom of women decreased, and premarital and extramarital sex were frowned upon. A sex manual was needed that would be suitable for the medieval cultural climate, and Ratirahasya was written, quite different from the ancient text Kama Sutra.
There are fifteen pachivedes (chapters) and 800 verses in Ratirahasya which deal with various topics such as different physiques, lunar calendar, different types of genitals, characteristics of women of various ages, hugs, kisses, sexual intercourse and sex positions, sex with a strange woman, etc. Kokokka describes various stages of love in Ratirahasya, the fifth stage being weight loss, the ninth is fainting, and the tenth and last stage is death. Ratirahasya makes classifications of women, and describes erogenous zones and days that lead to women's easy arousal.
Ratirahasya is the first book to describe in detail Indian feminine beauty. The book classified women into four psycho-physical types, according to their appearance and physical features.
- Padmini (lotus woman)
- Chitrini (art woman)
- Shankini (conch woman)
- Hastini (elephant woman)
According to W. G. Archer, Kokkoka "is concerned with how to make the most of sex, how to enjoy it and how to keep a woman happy." In writing this text, Kokokka depended on a number of other authors including, among others Nandikeshvara, Gonikaputra, and Vatsyayana.
Arabic, Persian and Turkish translations of the book are entitled Lizzat-al-Nissa. Alex Comfort, author of The Joy of Sex, made an English translation of Ratirahasya in 1964 titled The Koka Shashtra, Being the Ratirahasya of Kokkoka, and Other Medieval Indian Writings on Love (London: George Allen and Unwin). Another English translation was made by S. C. Upadhyaya, entitled Kokashastra (Rati Rahasya) of Pundit Kokkoka. Some commentaries have been written on this text by Avana Rama Chandra, Kavi Prabhu, and Harihara. It is a popular text in India, second only to the Kama Sutra among sex manuals.
- Vātsyāyana; Lance Dane (7 October 2003). The Complete Illustrated Kama Sutra. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-89281-138-0. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Suzanne G. Frayser; Thomas J. Whitby (1995). Studies in Human Sexuality: a selected guide. Libraries Unlimited. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-56308-131-6. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Yudit Kornberg Greenberg (2008). Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. p. 348. ISBN 978-1-85109-980-1. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Krishan Lal Kalia (1 January 1997). Eminent Personalities of Kashmir. Discovery Publishing House. p. 16. ISBN 978-81-7141-345-4. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Ra, Frank. Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. Subjective Well-being Institute.
- David Goodway (1 November 2011). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. PM Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-60486-221-8. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Siegfried Lienhard (1984). A History of Classical Poetry: Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 119. ISBN 978-3-447-02425-9. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Kazmi, Nikhat (Jun 7, 2004). "Our B-I-G fix". Times of India. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- Molly Oldfield; John Mitchinson (21 Apr 2011). "QI: Quite interesting facts about weddings" (in English). The Telegraph. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- Kar (1 January 2005). Comprehensive Textbook of Sexual Medicine. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. p. 456. ISBN 978-81-8061-405-7. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Dge-ʼdun-chos-ʼphel (A-mdo) (1992). Tibetan arts of love. Snow Lion Publications. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-937938-97-3. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night. Forgotten Books. ISBN 1440039984, 9781440039980.
Modern sex manualsDespite the existence of ancient sex manuals in other cultures, sex manuals were banned in Western culture for many years. What sexual information was available was generally only available in the form of illicit pornography or medical books, which generally discussed either sexual physiology or sexual disorders. The authors of medical works went so far as to write the most sexually explicit parts of their texts in Latin, so as to make them inaccessible to the general public (see Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis as an example).
A few translations of the ancient works were circulated privately, such as The Perfumed Garden….
In the late 19th Century, Ida Craddock wrote many serious instructional tracts on human sexuality and appropriate, respectful sexual relations between married couples. Among her works were The Wedding Night and Right Marital Living. In 1918 Marie Stopes published Married Love, considered groundbreaking despite its limitations in details used to discuss sex acts.
Theodoor Hendrik van de Velde's book Het volkomen huwelijk (The Perfect Marriage), published in 1926, was well known in Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Estonia. In Germany, Die vollkommene Ehe reached its 42nd printing in 1932 despite its being placed on the list of forbidden books, the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, by the Roman Catholic Church. In Sweden, Det fulländade äktenskapet was widely known although regarded as pornographic and unsuitable for young readers long into the 1960s. In English, Ideal Marriage: Its Physiology and Technique has 42 printings in its original 1930 edition, and was republished in new editions in 1965 and 2000.
David Reuben, M. D.'s book Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid to Ask), published in 1969, was one of the first sex manuals that entered mainstream culture in the 1960s. Although it did not feature explicit images of sex acts, its descriptions of sex acts were unprecedentedly detailed, addressing common questions and misunderstandings Reuben had heard from his own patients. Most notably, Reuben dismissed popular medical-psychiatric notions of "vaginal" vs. "clitoral" orgasm, explaining exactly how female physiology works.
The Joy of Sex by Dr. Alex Comfort was the first visually explicit sex manual to be published by a mainstream publisher. Its appearance in public bookstores in the 1970s opened the way to the widespread publication of sex manuals in the West. As a result, hundreds of sex manuals are now available in print.
One of the currently most well known in America is The Guide to Getting it On by Paul Joannides. Now in its sixth edition, it has won several prestigious awards and been translated into 12 foreign languages since appearing in 1996.
Notes and references
- "4, Sexual Eruption and the Reaction: The Interwar Years", Teaching America About Sex: marriage guides and sex manuals from the late Victorians to Dr. Ruth, NYU Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0-8147-5532-7.
- "Sex Manuals", American Memory, Library of Congress.
- Frayser, Suzanne G; Whitby, Thomas J (1995), Studies in Human Sexuality: A Selected Guide, Libraries Unlimited, ISBN 978-1-56308-131-6.
- Sahli, Nancy Ann. Women and Sexuality in America: A Bibliography. Boston: GK Hall, 1984. ISBN 978-0-8161-8099-8
- Laipson, Peter. Kiss without shame, for she desires it": sexual foreplay in American marital advice literature, 1900–1925 March 22, 1996: Journal of Social History. ISSN 0022-4529. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Brissett, Dennis; Lewis, Lionel S (Jan 1970), "Guidelines for Marital Sex: An Analysis of Fifteen Popular Marriage Manuals", The Family Coordinator, 19, JStor, pp. 41–48, doi:10.2307/582144.
List of sex manuals
- Bodansky, Stephen ‘Steve’; Bodansky, Vera (2002), The Illustrated Guide to Extended Massive Orgasm (1st ed.), Hunter House, ISBN 0-89793-362-1, 235pp.
- Hooper, Anne J (2002), Sexopedia (1st American ed.), DK, ISBN 0-7894-8958-9, 272 pp.
- Kemper, Alfred M (1972), Love Couches Design Criteria, Los Angeles, Library of Congress #75-36170, 101 pp. — design criteria for assistive furniture, with sections on accommodation of disabled persons.
- McMeel, Andrews; Sußman, Lisa (2002), Sex Positions, Carlton, ISBN 1-84222-266-X, 96 pp.
- Nerve, ed. (2005), Position of the Day Playbook: Sex Every Day in Every Way, Chronicle Books, ISBN 0-8118-4701-2, 376 pp.
- Kalyanamalla, Ananga Ranga.
- Ovid, Ars Amatoria (satirical), Rome.
- Philænis, Art of Love, Samos.
- Li, Dongxuan (Tang dynasty), Book of Dongxuan
- Reuben, David, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid to Ask).
- Chen, Zhiming, Good Recipes for Woman.
- winks, Catherine ‘Cathy’; Semans, Anne, The Good Vibrations Guide to Sex.
- Zhu, Peng, Guide for the Jade House.
- Joannides, Paul, The Guide to Getting it On.
- Huang‐Ti, Handbooks of Sex.
- ————————, Tao of Love Coupling.
- Yasodhara, Jayamangala.
- Picano, Felice; White, Edmund, The Joy of Gay Sex.
- Comfort, Alex, The Joy of Sex.
- Vatsayana, Kama Sutra.
- Latif, Muhammad Abdul, Lazzat Un Nisa.
- Chen, Xilei, The Mystery of Chamber Art.
- Lian, Gao, On Abstinence in Sex.
- Tao, Hongjing, On the Loss and Gain of Intercourse with Woman.
- Sun, Simiao, On the Loss and Gain of The Chamber Art.
- Tuo, Hua, On Venereal disease
- Hong, Ge (Jin Dynasty (265–420)), Pao-Pu Zhi
- Kokkoka, Ratirahasya.
- Praudhadevaraja, Ratiratna Pradipika.
- Roberts, Dr. Amanda, Guide to Love and Sex, Reader’s Digest.
- Shou, Wang, Recipe of The Simple Lady.
- Chong, Hezi, The Secret Manual of The Jade House.
- Ji, Hong, The Wonder Book of The Chamber.
- Chen, Rong (Han dynasty), The Yin Passage of Rongchen.
|The Joy of Sex|
OverviewThe Joy of Sex spent eleven weeks at the top of the New York Times bestseller list and more than 70 weeks in the top five (1972–1974).
The original intention was to use the same approach as such cook books as The Joy of Cooking, hence section titles include "starters" and "main courses". The book features sexual practices such as oral sex and various sex positions as well as bringing "farther out" practices such as sexual bondage and swinging to the attention of the general public.
The original version was illustrated with a mixture of classical Indian and Japanese erotica and specially commissioned illustrations by Chris Foss (black-and-white line drawings) and Charles Raymond (colour paintings). These two artists based their work on photographs taken by Chris Foss, of Charles Raymond and his wife. The illustrations have become somewhat dated, mainly because of changes in hairstyles. Both the illustrations and text are titillating as well as illustrative, in contrast to the bland, clinical style of earlier books about sex. More recent editions feature new artwork, and added text emphasizing safer sex.
Newer versions have reversed previously-supportive positions on topics such as swinging as extensive textual changes were made at the height of the 1980s AIDS panic.
A pocket book version entitled, The Joy of Sex, the Pocket Edition was also published. The book won the Bookseller/Diagram Prize for Oddest Title of the Year in 1997.
The Joy of Sex did not address homosexual sex beyond a definitional level. Though there was a careful (for the day) treatment of bondage, other BDSM activities received definitional coverage at best. The book played a part in what is often called the sexual revolution.
ControversyThere has been much controversy over The Joy of Sex. Many religious groups have fought to keep it out of public libraries. In March 2008, the Nampa, Idaho public library board ruled in favor of removing The Joy of Sex and The Joy of Gay Sex from the libraries' shelves, making them only available upon request in the library director's office. The books were restored to shelves in September 2008 in response to ACLU threats of litigation.
Updated 2008 editionPublisher Mitchell Beazley released an updated edition of the book in September 2008. The new edition was rewritten and reinvented by relationship psychologist Susan Quilliam and approved by Nicholas Comfort, the original author's son.
More material has been added to the book, and the remaining text has been rewritten from both a factual and psychological viewpoint to take into account social shifts since 1972. The new edition presents a more balanced female/male perspective and also contains 120 completely re-shot photographs and re-drawn illustrations.
The quirky style—and the message of the book, that sex is fun—remain the same. Mitchell Beazley has marketed the New Joy with the subtitle "a thinking person's guide to sex".
- The Joy of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking, 1972
- More Joy of Sex: A Lovemaking Companion to The Joy of Sex, 1973 (sequel)
- The Joy of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking, revised and updated edition, 1986 (revised to include AIDS)
- More Joy of Sex: A Lovemaking Companion to The Joy of Sex, revised and updated edition, 1987 (sequel; revised to include AIDS)
- The New Joy of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking for the Nineties, 1992 (revised to bring the science, especially the sociology, up to date)
- The New Joy of Sex, by Alex Comfort and Susan Quilliam, 2008 (ISBN-10: 1845334299, ISBN-13: 9781845334291)
- John Bear, The #1 New York Times Best Seller: intriguing facts about the 484 books that have been #1 New York Times bestsellers since the first list, 50 years ago, Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 1992.
- Burkardt, John (2007-06-01). "The Oddest Book Titles". John Burkardt. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
- Nampa library restores 'Joy of Sex' books. Kristin Rodine. Retrieved on 2008-09-14.
- Caroline Davies. "Joy of Sex gets makeover for generation that found Viagra". The Observer, February 10, 2008. Accessed 30 July 2008.
National Lampoon's Joy of Sex (also known simply as Joy of Sex) is a 1984 film directed by Martha Coolidge. It was written by Kathleen Rowell and J.J. Salter, based on the sex manual by Alex Comfort.
PlotLeslie Hindenberg has just entered her senior year of high school. She visits her doctor to have a mole examined, but she mistakenly believes she only has six weeks to live and goes about trying to lose her virginity. However it is difficult for her to accomplish her goal when her father is the school's phys ed coach. Meanwhile, Alan Holt is a teenager whose pals brag about their sexual encounters. He is rather frustrated as he cannot stop thinking about sex and attempts to lose his virginity anyway possible.
|Cameron Dye||Alan Holt|
|Michelle Meyrink||Leslie Hindenberg|
|Colleen Camp||Liz Sampson|
|Ernie Hudson||Mr. Porter|
|Darren Dalton||Ed Ingalls|
|Christopher Lloyd||Coach Hindenberg|
ProductionDirector Coolidge was fired from the movie for cutting many scenes of gratuitous nudity but declined an opportunity to have her directing credit appear as Alan Smithee.
According to the book Wired, John Belushi was supposed to appear in this movie, but he died before filming began.
ReleaseThe film was given a theatrical release in the United States by Paramount Pictures in August 1984. It grossed $4,463,841 at the box office.
The film was given a release on VHS by Paramount Home Video in the 1980s. As of 2011, the film has still not been officially released on DVD.
Eleanor Mannikka of All Movie Guide has nothing but disdain for the movie:
|“||The abysmal teen comedy Joy of Sex is stripped down to just sex in every line and in every joke except where other bodily functions come into play.||”|
- Posted by Sleazegrinder (2009-01-24). "Joy of Sex (1984)". Movies About Girls. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- "Joy of Sex". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- Blumstein, Michael. "Joy of Sex - Trailer - Cast - Showtimes - NYTimes.com". Movies.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- National Lampoon's Joy of Sex at the Internet Movie Database
- National Lampoon's Joy of Sex at AllRovi
In human societies, some jurisdictions have placed various restrictive laws against certain sexual activities, such as sex with minors, incest, extramarital sex, position-of-trust sex, prostitution, sodomy, public lewdness, rape, and bestiality. Religious beliefs can play a role in decisions about sex, or its purpose, as well; for example, beliefs about what sexual acts constitute virginity loss or the decision to make a virginity pledge. Some sections of Christianity commonly view sex between a married couple for the purpose of reproduction as holy, while other sections may not. Modern Judaism and Islam view sexual intercourse between husband and wife as a spiritual and edifying action. Hinduism and Buddhism views on sexuality have differing interpretations.
Sexual intercourse between non-human animals is more often referred to as copulation; for most, mating and copulation occurs at the point of estrus (the most fertile period of time in the female's reproductive cycle), which increases the chances of successful impregnation. However, bonobos, dolphins, and chimpanzees are known to engage in sexual intercourse even when the female is not in estrus, and to engage in sex acts with same-sex partners. Like humans engaging in sex primarily for pleasure, this behavior in the above mentioned animals is also presumed to be for pleasure, and a contributing factor to strengthening their social bonds.
Etymology, definitions, and stimulation factors
Sexual intercourse is also known as copulation, coitus or coition; coitus is derived from the Latin word coitio or coire, meaning "a coming together or joining together" or "to go together" and is usually defined as penile-vaginal penetration. Penetration by the hardened, erect penis is additionally known as intromission, or by the Latin name immissio penis (Latin for "insertion of the penis"). Copulation, although usually used to describe the mating process of non-human animals, is defined as "the transfer of the sperm from male to female" or "the act of sexual procreation between a man and a woman". As such, common vernacular and research often limit sexual intercourse to penile-vaginal penetration, with virginity loss being predicated on the activity, while the term sex and phrase "having sex" commonly mean any sexual activity – penetrative and non-penetrative (intercourse and outercourse). The World Health Organization states that non-English languages and cultures use different terms for sexual activity, with slightly different meanings.
Anal and oral sex may be regarded as sexual intercourse, but they, as well as non-penetrative sex acts, may also be regarded as maintaining "technical virginity" or as outercourse, regardless of any penetrative aspects. Heterosexual couples often engage in these practices not only for sexual pleasure, but as a way of avoiding pregnancy and maintaining that they are virgins because they have not yet engaged in penile-vaginal sex. Likewise, some gay men view frotting or oral sex as maintaining their virginity, with anal penetration regarded as virginity loss, while other gay men consider frotting or oral sex to be their main forms of intercourse. Lesbians may regard oral sex or fingering as loss of virginity, and may also regard tribadism as a primary form of sexual activity.
In 1999, a study by the Kinsey Institute, published in JAMA (the Journal of the American Medical Association), examined the definition of sex based on a 1991 random sample of 599 college students from 29 U.S. states; it reported that 60% said oral-genital contact (fellatio, cunnilingus) did not constitute having sex. Similarly, a 2003 study published in the Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality focusing on definitions of having sex and noting studies concerning university students from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia reported that "[w]hile the vast majority of respondents (more than 97%) in these three studies included penile-vaginal intercourse in their definition of sex, fewer (between 70% and 90%) respondents considered penile-anal intercourse to constitute having sex" and that "oral-genital behaviours were defined as sex by between 32% and 58% of respondents". A different study by the Kinsey Institute sampled 484 people, ranging in ages 18–96. "Nearly 95 percent of people in the study agreed that penile-vaginal intercourse meant 'had sex.' But the numbers changed as the questions got more specific." 11 percent of respondents based "had sex" on whether the man had achieved an orgasm, concluding that absence of an orgasm does not constitute "having had" sex. "About 80 percent of respondents said penile-anal intercourse meant 'had sex.' About 70 percent of people believed oral sex was sex."
Anal sex involves stimulation of the anus, anal cavity, sphincter valve or rectum, mostly commonly employing the insertion of a man's penis into another person's rectum. Oral sex consists of all the sexual activities that involve the use of the tongue, rest of the mouth and throat to stimulate genitalia. It is sometimes performed to the exclusion of all other forms of sexual activity, and may include the ingestion or absorption of semen or vaginal fluids. Fingering is the manual (genital) manipulation of the clitoris, vulva, vagina, or anus for the purpose of sexual arousal and sexual stimulation. It may constitute the entire sexual encounter or it may be part of mutual masturbation, foreplay or other sexual activities.
Bonding and affectionIn animals, copulation ranges from a purely reproductive activity to one of emotional bonding between mated pairs. Sexual intercourse and other sexual activity typically plays a powerful role in human bonding. For example, in many societies, it is normal for couples to have frequent intercourse while using some method of birth control (contraception), sharing pleasure and strengthening their emotional bond through sexual activity even though they are deliberately avoiding pregnancy.
In humans and bonobos, the female undergoes relatively concealed ovulation so that both male and female partners commonly do not know whether she is fertile at any given moment. One possible reason for this distinct biological feature may be formation of strong emotional bonds between sexual partners important for social interactions and, in the case of humans, long-term partnership rather than immediate sexual reproduction.
Humans, bonobos, dolphins, and chimpanzees are all intelligent social animals, whose cooperative behavior proves significantly more successful than that of any individual alone. In these animals, the use of sex has evolved beyond reproduction, to apparently serve additional social functions. Sex reinforces intimate social bonds between individuals to form larger social structures. The resulting cooperation encourages collective tasks that promote the survival of each member of the group.
Duration and sexual difficultiesIntercourse often ends when the man has ejaculated, and thus the partner might not have time to reach orgasm. In addition, premature ejaculation (PE) is common, and women often require a substantially longer duration of stimulation with a sexual partner than men do before reaching an orgasm. Masters and Johnson found that men took about 4 minutes to reach orgasm with their partners; women took about 10–20 minutes to reach orgasm with their partners, but 4 minutes to reach orgasm when they masturbated. Scholars Weiten, Dunn and Hammer have reasoned, "Unfortunately, many couples are locked into the idea that orgasms should be achieved only through intercourse [penetrative vaginal sex]. Even the word foreplay suggests that any other form of sexual stimulation is merely preparation for the 'main event.'... ...Because women reach orgasm through intercourse less consistently than men, they are more likely than men to have faked an orgasm."
In 1991, scholars June M. Reinisch and Ruth Beasley of the Kinsey Institute stated, "The truth is that the time between penetration and ejaculation varies not only from man to man, but from one time to the next for the same man." They added that the appropriate length for intercourse is the length of time it takes for both partners to be mutually satisfied, emphasizing that Kinsey "found that 75 percent of men ejaculated within two minutes of penetration. But he didn't ask if the men or their partners considered two minutes mutually satisfying" and "more recent research reports slightly longer times for intercourse". A 2008 survey of Canadian and American sex therapists stated that the average time for intromission was 7 minutes and that 1 to 2 minutes was too short, 3 to 7 minutes was adequate and 7 to 13 minutes desirable, while 10 to 30 minutes was too long.
Anorgasmia is regular difficulty reaching orgasm after ample sexual stimulation, causing personal distress. This is much more common in women than in men. The physical structure of the act of coitus favors penile stimulation over clitoral stimulation. The location of the clitoris then usually necessitates manual stimulation in order for the female to achieve orgasm. About 15% of women report difficulties with orgasm, 10% have never climaxed, and 40–50% have either complained about sexual dissatisfaction or experienced difficulty becoming sexually aroused at some point in their lives. 75% of men and 29% of women always have orgasms with their partner.
Vaginismus is the involuntary tensing of the pelvic floor musculature, making coitus distressing, painful, and sometimes impossible for women. It is a conditioned reflex of the pubococcygeus muscle, sometimes referred to as the "PC muscle". Vaginismus can be a vicious cycle for women, they expect to experience pain during intercourse, which then causes a muscle spasm, which leads to painful intercourse. Treatment of vaginismus often includes both psychological and behavioral techniques, including the use of vaginal dilators. A new medical treatment using Botox is in the testing phase. Some women also experience dyspareunia, a medical term for painful or uncomfortable intercourse, of unknown cause.
About 40% of males suffer from some form of erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence, at least occasionally. For those whose impotence is caused by medical conditions, prescription drugs such as Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra are available. However, doctors caution against the unnecessary use of these drugs because they are accompanied by serious risks such as increased chance of heart attack. Moreover, using a drug to counteract the symptom—impotence—can mask the underlying problem causing the impotence and does not resolve it. A serious medical condition might be aggravated if left untreated.
Premature ejaculation is more common than erectile dysfunction. "Estimates vary, but as many as 1 out of 3 men may be affected by [premature ejaculation] at some time." "Masters and Johnson speculated that premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction, even though more men seek therapy for erectile difficulties." This is because, "although an estimated 15 percent to 20 percent of men experience difficulty controlling rapid ejaculation, most do not consider it a problem requiring help, and many women have difficulty expressing their sexual needs". The American Urological Association (AUA) estimates that premature ejaculation could affect 21 percent of men in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is examining the drug dapoxetine to treat premature ejaculation. In clinical trials, those with PE who took dapoxetine experienced intercourse three to four times longer before orgasm than without the drug. Another ejaculation-related disorder is delayed ejaculation, which can be caused as an unwanted side effect of antidepressant medications such as Fluvoxamine.
Although disability-related pain and mobility impairment can hamper intercourse, in many cases the most significant impediments to intercourse for individuals with a disability are psychological. In particular, people who have a disability can find intercourse daunting due to issues involving their self-concept as a sexual being, or partner's discomfort or perceived discomfort. Temporary difficulties can arise with alcohol and sex as alcohol initially increases interest (through disinhibition) but decreases capacity with greater intake.
Reproduction, reproductive methods and pregnancyReproduction among humans usually occurs with penile-vaginal penetration. Male orgasm usually includes ejaculation, a series of muscular contractions that deliver semen containing male gametes known as sperm cells or spermatozoa from the penis into the vagina. The subsequent route of the sperm from the vault of the vagina is through the cervix and into the uterus, and then into the fallopian tubes. Millions of sperm are present in each ejaculation, to increase the chances of one fertilizing an egg or ovum (see sperm competition). When a fertile ovum from the female is present in the fallopian tubes, the male gamete joins with the ovum, resulting in fertilization and the formation of a new embryo. When a fertilized ovum reaches the uterus, it becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus – known as the endometrium – and a pregnancy begins. Unlike most species, human sexual activity is not linked to periods of estrus and can take place at any time during the reproductive cycle, even during pregnancy. Where a sperm donor has sexual intercourse with a woman who is not his partner, for the sole purpose of impregnating the woman, this may be known as natural insemination, as opposed to artificial insemination. However, most sperm donors donate their sperm through a sperm bank and pregnancy is achieved through artificial insemination.
Artificial insemination is performed with the express intention of attempting to impregnate the female, and to this extent, its purpose is the medical equivalent of sexual intercourse.
In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 123 million women become pregnant world-wide each year, and around 87 million of those pregnancies or 70.7% are unintentional. About 46 million pregnancies per year reportedly end in induced abortion. About 6 million U.S. women become pregnant per year. Out of known pregnancies, two-thirds result in live births and roughly 25% in abortions; the remainder end in miscarriage. However, many more women become pregnant and miscarry without even realizing it, instead mistaking the miscarriage for an unusually heavy menstruation. The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate fell by 27 percent between 1990 and 2000, from 116.3 pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15–19 to 84.5. This data includes live births, abortions, and fetal losses. Almost 1 million American teenage women, 10% of all women aged 15–19 and 19% of those who report having had intercourse, become pregnant each year. Britain has been stated to have a teenage pregnancy rate similar to America's.
Reproductive methods and pregnancy also extend to gay and lesbian couples. For gay male pairings, there is the option of surrogate pregnancy; for lesbian couples, there is donor insemination in addition to choosing surrogate pregnancy. Further, developmental biologists have been researching and developing techniques to facilitate biological same-sex reproduction, though this has yet to be demonstrated in humans (see same-sex reproduction). Surrogacy and donor insemination remain the primary methods. Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. The woman may be the child's genetic mother (traditional surrogacy) or she may carry a pregnancy to delivery after having another woman's eggs transferred to her uterus (gestational surrogacy). Gay and lesbian pairings who want the host to have no genetic connection to the child may choose gestational surrogacy and enter into a contract with an egg donor. Gay male couples might decide that they should both contribute semen for the in vitro fertilisation (IVF) process, which further establishes the couple's joint intention to become parents. Lesbian couples often have contracts drafted to extinguish the legal rights of the sperm donor, while creating legal rights for the parent who is not biologically related to the child.
Safe sex, contraception, and prevalence of sexual activityAccording to a national survey conducted in the U.S. in 1995, at least 3/4 of all men and women in the U.S. have had intercourse by their late teenage years, and more than 2/3 of all sexually experienced teens have had 2 or more partners. In 2004, the Guttmacher Institute indicated in 2002 that 62% of the 62 million women aged 15–44 are currently using a contraceptive method, that among U.S. women who practice contraception, the Pill is the most popular choice (30.6%), followed by tubal sterilization (27.0%) and the male condom (18.0%), and that 27% of teenage women using contraceptives choose condoms as their primary method. A 2006 Kaiser Family Foundation report stated that among sexually active 15- to 19-year-olds in the U.S., 83% of females and 91% of males reported using at least one method of birth control during last intercourse.
A 2006 survey conducted by The Observer suggested that most adolescents in Britain were waiting longer to have sexual intercourse than they were only a few years earlier. In 2002, it was reported that 32% of British teenagers were having sex before the age of 16, while, in 2006, it was only 20%. The average age a British teenager lost his/her virginity was reportedly 17.13 years in 2002; in 2006, it was 17.44 years on average for girls and 18.06 for boys. The most notable drop among teens who reported having sex was 14- and 15-year-olds. A 2008 survey conducted by YouGov for Channel 4 suggested that 40% of all 14- to 17-year-olds are sexually active, 74% of sexually active 14- to 17-year-olds have had a sexual experience under the age of consent, and 6% of teens would wait until marriage before having sex.
The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB) indicated in 2010 that 1 of 4 acts of vaginal intercourse are condom-protected in the U.S. (1 in 3 among singles), condom use is higher among black and Hispanic Americans than among white Americans and those from other racial groups, and adults using a condom for intercourse were just as likely to rate the sexual extent positively in terms of arousal, pleasure and orgasm than when having intercourse without one.
BenefitsIn humans, sexual activity has been claimed to produce health benefits as varied as improved sense of smell, stress and blood pressure reduction, increased immunity, and decreased risk of prostate cancer. Sexual intimacy, as well as orgasms, increases levels of the hormone oxytocin, also known as "the love hormone", which helps people bond and build trust. Sex is also known as one of many mood repair strategies, which means it can be used to help dissipate feelings of sadness or depression. A long-term study of 3,500 people between 30 and 101 by clinical neuropsychologist David Weeks, MD, head of old age psychology at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital in Scotland, found that "sex helps you look between four and seven years younger", according to impartial ratings of the subjects' photos. Exclusive causation, however, is unclear, and the benefits may be indirectly related to sex and directly related to significant reductions in stress, greater contentment, and better sleep that sex promotes.
RisksSexually transmitted infections (STIs) can be spread by person-to-person sexual contact, including sexual intercourse. There are 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases every year in the U.S., and, in 2005, the World Health Organization estimated that 448 million people aged 15–49 were being infected a year with curable STIs such as syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. In 2006, The Independent newspaper reported that the biggest rise in sexually transmitted infections was in syphilis, which rose by more than 20%, while increases were also seen in cases of genital warts and herpes.
STIs are caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are passed from person to person during sexual contact. Some, in particular HIV and syphilis, can also be passed in other ways including from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth, through blood products, and by shared hypodermic needles. Gonococcal or chlamydial infections often produce no symptoms at all. Untreated chlamydial infection can lead to female infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Human papillomavirus can lead to genital and cervical cancers. Syphilis can result in stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Untreated gonococcal infections result in miscarriages, preterm births, and perinatal deaths. Infants born to mothers with untreated gonorrhoea or chlamydia can develop serious eye infections, which can lead to blindness. Hepatitis B can also be transmitted through sexual contact. Globally, there are about 350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B.
Some STIs can cause ulceration, but even if they do not, they increase the risk of both acquiring and passing on HIV up to ten-fold. HIV is one of the world's leading infectious killers, and, in 2010, approximately 30 million people were estimated to have died because of it since the beginning of the epidemic. Of the 2.7 million new HIV infections estimated to occur worldwide in 2010, 1.9 million (70%) were in Africa. "The estimated 1.2 million Africans who died of HIV-related illnesses in 2010 comprised 69% of the global total of 1.8 million deaths attributable to the epidemic." It is diagnosed by blood tests, and while no cure has been found, it can be controlled with antiretroviral drugs, and patients can enjoy healthy and productive lives.
The most effective way to avoid sexually transmitted infections is to abstain from sexual intercourse, including oral, vaginal, and anal sex, or to have sexual intercourse only with one long-term, uninfected partner, who also remains entirely monogamous. The World Health Organization says that "Male latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis." In cases where infection is suspected, early medical intervention is highly beneficial in all cases.
People, especially those who get little or no physical exercise, have a slightly increased risk of triggering heart attack or sudden cardiac death when they engage in sexual intercourse, or any other vigorous physical exercise which is engaged in on a sporadic basis. Increased risk is temporary with incidents occurring within a few hours of the activity. Regular exercise reduces but does not eliminate the increased risk.
AdultsAlex Comfort and others posit three potential advantages of intercourse in humans, which are not mutually exclusive: reproductive, relational, and recreational. While the development of the Pill and other highly effective forms of contraception in the mid- and late 20th century increased people's ability to segregate these three functions, they still overlap a great deal and in complex patterns. For example: A fertile couple may have intercourse while contracepting not only to experience sexual pleasure (recreational), but also as a means of emotional intimacy (relational), thus deepening their bonding, making their relationship more stable and more capable of sustaining children in the future (deferred reproductive). This same couple may emphasize different aspects of intercourse on different occasions, being playful during one episode of intercourse (recreational), experiencing deep emotional connection on another occasion (relational), and later, after discontinuing contraception, seeking to achieve pregnancy (reproductive, or more likely reproductive and relational).
Nearly all Americans marry during their lifetime; yet close to half of all first marriages are expected to end in separation or divorce, many within a few years, and subsequent marriages are even more likely to end. Sexual dissatisfaction is associated with increased risk of divorce and relationship dissolution.
According to the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), in 2010, men whose most recent sexual encounter was with a relationship partner reported greater arousal, greater pleasure, fewer problems with erectile function, orgasm, and less pain during the event than men whose last sexual encounter was with a non-relationship partner. According to the Journal of Counseling & Development, many women express that their most satisfying sexual experiences entail being connected to someone, rather than solely basing satisfaction on orgasm.
AdolescentsWith regard to adolescent sexuality, sexual intercourse is often for relational and recreational purposes as well. However, teenage pregnancy is usually disparaged, and research suggests that the earlier onset of puberty for children puts pressure on children and teenagers to act like adults before they are emotionally or cognitively ready, and thus are at risk to suffer from emotional distress as a result of their sexual activities. Some studies have concluded that engaging in sex leaves adolescents, and especially girls, with higher levels of stress and depression. A majority of adolescents in the United States have been provided with some information regarding sexuality, though there have been efforts among social conservatives in the United States government to limit sex education in public schools to abstinence-only sex education curricula.
One group of Canadian researchers found a relationship between self-esteem and sexual activity. They found that students, especially girls, who were verbally abused by teachers or rejected by their peers were more likely than other students to engage in sex by the end of the Grade 7. The researchers speculate that low self-esteem increases the likelihood of sexual activity: "low self-esteem seemed to explain the link between peer rejection and early sex. Girls with a poor self-image may see sex as a way to become 'popular', according to the researchers".
In India, there is growing evidence that adolescents are becoming more sexually active outside of marriage, which is feared to lead to an increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS among adolescents, as well as the number of unwanted pregnancies and abortions, and add to the conflict between contemporary social values. In India, adolescents have relatively poor access to health care and education, and with cultural norms opposing extramarital sexual behavior, "these implications may acquire threatening dimensions for the society and the nation".
Not all views on adolescent sexual behavior are negative, however. Psychiatrist Lynn Ponton writes, "All adolescents have sex lives, whether they are sexually active with others, with themselves, or seemingly not at all," and that viewing adolescent sexuality as a potentially positive experience, rather than as something inherently dangerous, may help young people develop healthier patterns and make more positive choices regarding sex. Likewise, others state that long-term romantic relationships allow adolescents to gain the skills necessary for high-quality relationships later in life and develop feelings of self-worth. Overall, positive romantic relationships among adolescents can result in long-term benefits. High-quality romantic relationships are associated with higher commitment in early adulthood and are positively associated with self-esteem, self-confidence, and social competence.
Ethical, religious, and legal views
Consent and sexual offensesSexual intercourse with a person against their will, or without their informed legal consent, is rape, and is considered a serious crime in most countries. More than 90% of rape victims are female, 99% of rapists male, and only about 5% of rapists are strangers to the victims.
Most developed countries have age of consent laws specifying the minimum legal age a person may engage in sexual intercourse with substantially older persons, usually set at about 16–18, while the legal age of consent ranges from 12–20 years of age or is not a matter of law in other countries. Sex with a person under the age of consent, regardless of their stated consent, is often considered to be sexual assault or statutory rape depending on differences in ages of the participants.
Some countries codify rape as any sex with a person of diminished or insufficient mental capacity to give consent, regardless of age.
The expression "sexual intercourse" has been used as a term of art in England and Wales and New York State. In England and Wales, from its enactment to its repeal on the 1 May 2004, section 44 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956 read:
Where, on the trial of any offence under this Act, it is necessary to prove sexual intercourse (whether natural or unnatural), it shall not be necessary to prove the completion of the intercourse by the emission of seed, but the intercourse shall be deemed complete upon proof of penetration only.
- Continuing act
Section 7(2) of the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 1976 contained the following words: "In this Act . . . references to sexual intercourse shall be construed in accordance with section 44 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956 so far as it relates to natural intercourse (under which such intercourse is deemed complete on proof of penetration only)". The Act made provision, in relation to rape and related offences, for England and Wales, and for courts-martial elsewhere.
From 3 November 1994 to 1 May 2004, section 1(2)(a) of the Sexual Offences Act 1956 (as substituted by section 142 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994) referred to "sexual intercourse with a person (whether vaginal or anal)". This section created the offence of rape in England and Wales.
The penal code in New York State provides: § 130.00 Sex offenses; definitions of terms: 1. "Sexual intercourse" has its ordinary meaning and occurs upon any penetration, however slight.
Sexual orientation and genderThere is considerable legal variability regarding definitions of and the legality of sexual intercourse between persons of the same sex or gender. For example, in 2003 the New Hampshire Supreme Court ruled that female same-sex relations did not constitute sexual intercourse, based on a 1961 definition from Webster's Third New International Dictionary, in Blanchflower v. Blanchflower, and thereby an accused wife in a divorce case was found not guilty of adultery based on this technicality. Some countries, such as Islamic countries, consider homosexual behavior to be an offense punishable by imprisonment or execution.
Marriage and relationshipsSexual intercourse has traditionally been considered an essential part of a marriage; many religious customs required consummation of the marriage by sexual intercourse, and the failure for any reason to consummate the marriage was a ground for annulment, which did not require a divorce process. Annulment declaration implied that the marriage was void from the start – i.e. there was in law no marriage. Furthermore, continuing sexual relations between the marriage partners is commonly considered a 'marital right' by many religions, permissible to married couples, generally for the purpose of reproduction. Today, there is wide variation in the opinions and teachings about sexual intercourse relative to marriage and other intimate relationships by the world's religions. Examples:
- Most denominations of Christianity, including Catholicism, have strict views or rules on what sexual practices are acceptable or, more specifically, what are not. Most Christian views on sex are formed or influenced by various interpretations of the Bible. Sex outside of marriage is considered a sin in some churches, and sex may be referred to as a "sacred covenant" between husband and wife. Historically, Christian teachings often promoted celibacy, although today usually only certain members (for example certain religious leaders) of some groups take a vow of celibacy, forsaking both marriage and any type of sexual or romantic activity. Some Christians view sex, particularly sexual intercourse between a married couple, as "holy" or a "holy sacrament". Some Christians interpret the Bible to forbid the "misuse of sexual organs" and take that to mean that only penile/vaginal penetrative intercourse is acceptable, while some argue that the Bible is not clear on oral sex and that it is a personal decision as to whether its acceptable within marriage.
- In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or Mormonism, sexual relations within the bonds of matrimony are seen as beautiful and sacred. Mormons consider sexual relations to be ordained of God for the creation of children and for the expression of love between husband and wife. Members are encouraged to not have any sexual relations before marriage, and be completely faithful to their spouse after marriage.
- In Judaism, a married Jewish man is required to provide his wife with sexual pleasure called onah (literally, "her time"), which is one of the conditions he takes upon himself as part of the Jewish marriage contract, ketubah, that he gives her during the Jewish wedding ceremony. In Jewish views on marriage, sexual desire is not evil, but must be satisfied in the proper time, place and manner.
- Islam views sex within marriage as something pleasurable, a spiritual activity, and a duty. In Shi'ia Islam, men are allowed to enter into an unlimited number of temporary marriages, which are contracted to last for a period of minutes to multiple years and permit sexual intercourse. Shi'ia women are allowed to enter only one marriage at a time, whether temporary or permanent.
- Wiccans believe that, as declared within the Charge of the Goddess, to "Let my [the Goddess] worship be within the heart that rejoiceth; for behold, all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals." This statement appears to allow one freedom to explore sensuality and pleasure, and mixed with the final maxim within the Wiccan Rede – "26. Eight words the Wiccan Rede fulfill – an’ it harm none, do what ye will." – Wiccans are encouraged to be responsible with their sexual encounters, in whatever variety they may occur.
- Hinduism has varied views about sexuality, but Hindu society, in general, perceives extramarital sex to be immoral and shameful.
- Buddhist ethics, in its most common formulation, holds that one should neither be attached to nor crave sensual pleasure.
- In the Bahá'í Faith, sexual relationships are permitted only between a husband and wife.
- Unitarian Universalists, with an emphasis on strong interpersonal ethics, do not place boundaries on the occurrence of sexual intercourse among consenting adults.
- According to the Brahma Kumaris and Prajapita Brahma Kumaris religion, the power of lust is the root of all evil and worse than murder. Purity (celibacy) is promoted for peace and to prepare for life in forthcoming Heaven on earth for 2,500 years when children will be created by the power of the mind.
- Shakers believe that sexual intercourse is the root of all sin and that all people should therefore be celibate, including married couples. Predictably, the original Shaker community that peaked at 6,000 full members in 1840 dwindled to three members by 2009.
Opposition to same-sex marriage is largely based on the belief that sexual intercourse and sexual orientation should be of a heterosexual nature. The recognition of such marriages is a civil rights, political, social, moral, and religious issue in many nations, and the conflicts arise over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into marriage, be required to use a different status (such as a civil union, which either grant equal rights as marriage or limited rights in comparison to marriage), or not have any such rights. A related issue is whether the term marriage should be applied.
In other animalsMany animals which live in the water use external fertilization, whereas internal fertilization may have developed from a need to maintain gametes in a liquid medium in the Late Ordovician epoch. Internal fertilization with many vertebrates (such as reptiles, some fish, and most birds) occur via cloacal copulation (see also hemipenis), while mammals copulate vaginally, and many basal vertebrates reproduce sexually with external fertilization.
However, some terrestrial arthropods do use external fertilization. For primitive insects, the male deposits spermatozoa on the substrate, sometimes stored within a special structure, and courtship involves inducing the female to take up the sperm package into her genital opening; there is no actual copulation. In groups such as dragonflies and spiders, males extrude sperm into secondary copulatory structures removed from their genital opening, which are then used to inseminate the female (in dragonflies, it is a set of modified sternites on the second abdominal segment; in spiders, it is the male pedipalps). In advanced groups of insects, the male uses its aedeagus, a structure formed from the terminal segments of the abdomen, to deposit sperm directly (though sometimes in a capsule called a "spermatophore") into the female's reproductive tract.
Humans, bonobos, chimpanzees and dolphins are species known to engage in heterosexual behaviors even when the female is not in estrus, which is a point in her reproductive cycle suitable for successful impregnation. These species, and others, are also known to engage in homosexual behaviors. Humans, bonobos and dolphins are all intelligent social animals, whose cooperative behavior proves far more successful than that of any individual alone. In these animals, the use of sex has evolved beyond reproduction, to apparently serve additional social functions. Sex reinforces intimate social bonds between individuals to form larger social structures. The resulting cooperation encourages collective tasks that promote the survival of each member of the group.
- Keath Roberts (2006). Sex. Lotus Press. p. 145. ISBN 8189093592, 9788189093594. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Wayne Weiten, Margaret A. Lloyd, Dana S. Dunn, Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2008). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 423. ISBN 0495553395, 9780495553397. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- Kar (2005). Comprehensive Textbook of Sexual Medicine. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. pp. 107–112. ISBN 8180614050, 9788180614057. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Sexual intercourse". Collins Dictionary. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- "Sexual intercourse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- "Sexual Intercourse". health.discovery.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
- The Gender of Sexuality: Exploring Sexual Possibilities; Page 76 – Virginia Rutter, Pepper Schwartz – 2011
- Diamond, Jared (1992). The rise and fall of the third chimpanzee. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-991380-1.
- Randall, H. E., & Byers, S. E. (2003). "What is sex? Students’ definitions of having sex, sexual partner, and unfaithful sexual behaviour". The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12: 87–96. "Recently, researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia have investigated university students' definitions of having sex. These studies found that students differ in their opinions of what sexual behaviours constitute having sex (Pitts & Rahman, 2001; Richters & Song, 1999; Sanders & Reinisch, 1999). While the vast majority of respondents (more than 97%) in these three studies included penile-vaginal intercourse in their definition of sex, fewer (between 70% and 90%) respondents considered penile-anal intercourse to constitute having sex. Oral-genital behaviours were defined as sex by between 32% and 58% of respondents."
- Paula Kamen (2000). Her Way: Young Women Remake the Sexual Revolution. New York University Press. pp. 74–77. ISBN 0814747337, 9780814747339. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Jerry D. Durham, Felissa R. Lashley (2000). The person with HIV/AIDS: nursing perspectives. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 597 pages. ISBN 8122300049, 9788122300048. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- Ann van Sevenant (2005). Sexual Outercourse: A Philosophy of Lovemaking. Peeters. p. 249. ISBN 90-429-1617-6.
- "Defining sexual health: Report of a technical consultation on sexual health". World Health Organization. January 2002. p. 4. Retrieved September 5, 2012. "In English, the term 'sex' is often used to mean "sexual activity" and can cover a range of behaviours. Other languages and cultures use different terms, with slightly different meanings."
- Klein, Marty. "The Meaning of Sex". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, Volume 1 August 10, 1998:. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- "Global strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections: 2006–2015. Breaking the chain of transmission". World Health Organization. 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- "Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2011. Also see Fact Sheet
- "Sexual Risk Factors". AIDS.gov. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Carpenter, Laura M. (2001). "The Ambiguity of "Having Sex": The Subjective Experience of Virginity Loss in the United States - Statistical Data Included". United States: The Journal of Sex Research. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Bryan Strong, Christine DeVault, Theodore F. Cohen (2010). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationship in a Changing Society. Cengage Learning. pp. 186. ISBN 0-534-62425-1, 9780534624255. Retrieved October 8, 2011. "Most people agree that we maintain virginity as long as we refrain from sexual (vaginal) intercourse. ... Other research, especially research looking into virginity loss, reports that 35% of virgins, defined as people who have never engaged in vaginal intercourse, have nontheless engaged in one or more other forms of heterosexual activity (e.g. oral sex, anal sex, or mutual masturbation). ... Data indicate that 'a very significant proportion of teens ha[ve] had experience with oral sex, even if they haven't had sexual intercourse, and may think of themselves as virgins'."
- Bersamin MM, Walker S, Waiters ED, Fisher DA, Grube JW (May 2005). "Promising to wait: virginity pledges and adolescent sexual behavior". J Adolesc Health 36 (5): 428–36. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.09.016. PMC 1949026. PMID 15837347.
- Daniel L. Akin. God on Sex: The Creator's Ideas About Love, Intimacy, and Marriage. (2003). B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8054-2596-9
- "Females of almost all species except man will mate only during their fertile period, which is known as estrus, or heat..." Helena Curtis (1975). Biology. Worth Publishers. p. 1065. ISBN 0-87901-040-1.
- Pineda, Leslie Ernest McDonald (2003). McDonald's Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. Blackwell Publishing. p. 597. ISBN 0-8138-1106-6.
- Frans de Waal, "Bonobo Sex and Society", Scientific American (March 1995): 82–86.
- Bailey NW, Zuk M (August 2009). "Same-sex sexual behavior and evolution". Trends Ecol. Evol. (Amst.) 24 (8): 439–46. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.014. PMID 19539396.
- Bruce Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity (St. Martin's Press, 1999). ISBN 0-312-19239-8
- Balcombe, J. Pleasurable Kingdom: Animals and the Nature of Feeling Good. Macmillan, New York, 2007. 360 pp. ISBN 1-4039-8602-9 
- Ada P. Kahn, Jan Fawcett (2008). The Encyclopedia of Mental Health. Infobase Publishing. p. 111. ISBN 0816064547, 9780816064540. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- "Coitus". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Coitus". dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Copulation". medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Copulation". thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Laura M. Carpenter (2005). Virginity lost: an intimate portrait of first sexual experiences. NYU Press. pp. 295 pages. ISBN 0-8147-1652-0, 9780814716526. Retrieved October 9, 2011. "Many studies, moreover, seemed uncritically to lump nonvirgin teens (so designated if they'd had vaginal sex) together with their alcohol–and drug–using peers 'at risk' for negative outcomes from unintended pregnancy and STIs (sexually transmitted infections) to academic failure and low self-esteem."
- Cox, Lauren (March 8, 2010). "Study: Adults Can't Agree What 'Sex' Means". ABC.com. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Robert Crooks, Karla Baur (2010). Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. pp. 286–289. ISBN 0495812943, 9780495812944. Retrieved August 30, 2012. "Noncoital forms of sexual intimacy, which have been called outercourse, can be a viable form of birth control. Outercourse includes all avenues of sexual intimacy other than penile–vaginal intercourse, including kissing, touching, mutual masturbation, and oral and anal sex."
- Frederick C. Wood (1968, Digitized July 23, 2008). Sex and the new morality. Association Press, 1968/Original from the University of Michigan. pp. 157 pages.
- Friedman, Mindy (September 20, 2005). "Sex on Tuesday: Virginity: A Fluid Issue". The Daily Californian. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Mark Regnerus (2007). "The Technical Virginity Debate: Is Oral Sex Really Sex?". Forbidden Fruit: Sex & Religion in the Lives of American Teenagers. Oxford University Press US. pp. 290 pages. ISBN 978-0-19-532094-7.
- Joseph Gross, Michael (2003). Like a Virgin. The Advocate, Here Publishing. pp. 104 pages, Page 44. 0001-8996. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Steven Gregory Underwood (2003). Gay men and anal eroticism: tops, bottoms, and versatiles. Psychology Press. pp. 225. ISBN 978-1-56023-375-6. 1560233753, 9781560233756. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
- Joe Perez (2006). Rising Up. Lulu.com. p. 248. ISBN 1-4116-9173-3, 9781411691735. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Dolby, Tom (February 2004). "Why Some Gay Men Don't Go All The Way". Out. pp. 76-77. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
- Hanne Blank (2008). Virgin: The Untouched History. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 1-59691-011-9, 9781-59691-011-9. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- Karen Bouris (1995). The first time: what parents and teenage girls should know about "losing your virginity". Conari Press. pp. 198. ISBN 0-943233-93-3, 9780943233932.
- Jerrold S. Greenberg, Clint E. Bruess, Sarah C. Conklin (2007). Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 884. ISBN 0-7637-4148-5,. 9780763741488. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
- Jayson, Sharon (2005-10-19). "'Technical virginity' becomes part of teens' equation". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- Wayne Weiten, Dana S. Dunn, Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2011). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. pp. 384-386. ISBN 1-111-18663-4, 9781111186630. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- "'I Want a Better Orgasm!'". WebMD. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
- Joseph A. Flaherty, John Marcell Davis, Philip G. Janicak (1993, Digitized Oct 29, 2010). Psychiatry: Diagnosis & therapy. A Lange clinical manual. Appleton & Lange (Original from Northwestern University). pp. 544 pages. ISBN 0-8385-1267-4, 9780838512678. Retrieved January 5, 2012. "The amount of time of sexual arousal needed to reach orgasm is variable — and usually much longer — in women than in men; thus, only 20–30% of women attain a coital climax. b. Many women (70–80%) require manual clitoral stimulation..."
- Mah, Kenneth; Binik, Yitzchak M (2001, available online on July 17, 2001). "The nature of human orgasm: a critical review of major trends". Clinical Psychology Review 21 (6): 823–856. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00069-6. "Women rated clitoral stimulation as at least somewhat more important than vaginal stimulation in achieving orgasm; only about 20% indicated that they did not require additional clitoral stimulation during intercourse."
- Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Rogers, Rebecca G. (2008, available online on May 16, 2008). "Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction". Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 35 (2): 169–183. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2008.03.006. PMID 18486835. "Most women report the inability to achieve orgasm with vaginal intercourse and require direct clitoral stimulation ... About 20% have coital climaxes..."
- Federation of Feminist Women’s Health Centers (1991). A New View of a Woman’s Body. Feminist Heath Press. pp. 46. ISBN 0-929945-0-2.
- O'Connell HE, Sanjeevan KV, Hutson JM (October 2005). "Anatomy of the clitoris". The Journal of Urology 174 (4 Pt 1): 1189–95. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000173639.38898.cd. PMID 16145367. Lay summary – BBC News (11 June 2006).
- Eichel EW, Eichel JD, Kule S. (1988). "The technique of coital alignment and its relation to female orgasmic response and simultaneous orgasm". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 14(2): 129–141. doi:10.1080/00926238808403913. PMID 3204637.
- Hurlbert DF, Apt C (1995). "The coital alignment technique and directed masturbation: a comparative study on female orgasm". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 21(1): 21–29. doi:10.1080/00926239508405968. PMID 7608994.
- Dr. John Dean and Dr. David Delvin. "Anal sex". Netdoctor.co.uk. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- "Anal Sex". Health.discovery.com. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- Hite, Shere (2003). The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press. pp. 512 pages. ISBN 1-58322-569-2, 9781583225691. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Carroll, Janell L. (2009). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. pp. 118 and 252. ISBN 978-0-495-60274-3. Retrieved 23 June 2012. "The clitoral glans is a particularly sensitive receptor and transmitter of sexual stimuli. In fact, the clitoris, although much smaller than the penis, has twice the number of nerve endings (8,000) as the penis (4,000) and has a higher concentration of nerve fibers than anywhere else on the body... In fact, most women do not enjoy direct stimulation of the glans and prefer stimulation through the [hood]... The majority of women enjoy a light caressing of the shaft of the clitoris, together with an occasional circling of the [clitoral glans], and maybe digital (finger) penetration of the vagina. Other women dislike direct stimulation and prefer to have the [clitoral glans] rolled between the lips of the labia. Some women like to have the entire area of the vulva caressed, whereas others like the caressing to be focused on the [clitoral glans]. Women report that clitoral stimulation feels best when the fingers are well lubricated."
- "Premature ejaculation". Mayo Clinic.com. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
- "Anorgasmia in women". Mayo Clinic.com. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- June M. Reinisch, Ruth Beasley (1991). The Kinsey Institute New Report On Sex. Macmillan. pp. 129–130. ISBN 0312063865, 9780312063863. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Corty, E., & Guardiani, J. (2008) Canadian and American Sex Therapists' Perceptions of Normal and Abnormal Ejaculatory Latencies: How Long Should Intercourse Last?. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(5), 1251–1256. doi:[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1743-6109.2008.00797.x 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00797.x"]. .interscience.wiley.com. 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "Sex therapists: Best sex is 7 to 13 min". Upi.com. March. 5, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Frank JE, Mistretta P, Will J (March 2008). "Diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction". American family physician 77 (5): 635–42. PMID 18350761.
- Laumann, E., Gagnon, J.H., Michael, R.T., and Michaels (1994). "The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States". University of Chicago Press (Also reported in the companion volume, Michael et al, Sex in America: A Definitive Survey.). Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- Reissing ED, Binik YM, Khalifé S, Cohen D, Amsel R. ( 2003) Etiological correlates of vaginismus: sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment. J Sex Marital Ther.29:47–59.
- Ward E, Ogden J. (1994) Experiencing Vaginismus: sufferers beliefs about causes and effects. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 9 (1): 33–45.
- Shafik A.; El-Sibai O.Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Volume 20, Number 3, 1 May 2000 , pp. 300–302(3)
- Binik YM (February 2005). "Should dyspareunia be retained as a sexual dysfunction in DSM-V? A painful classification decision". Arch Sex Behav 34 (1): 11–21. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-0998-4. PMID 15772767.
- Peckham BM, Maki DG, Patterson JJ, Hafez GR (April 1986). "Focal vulvitis: a characteristic syndrome and cause of dyspareunia. Features, natural history, and management". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 154 (4): 855–64. PMID 3963075.
- Schouten BW, Bohnen AM, Groeneveld FP, Dohle GR, Thomas S, Bosch JL (July 2010). "Erectile dysfunction in the community: trends over time in incidence, prevalence, GP consultation and medication use—the Krimpen study: trends in ED". J Sex Med 7 (7): 2547–53. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01849.x. PMID 20497307.
- Heidelbaugh JJ (February 2010). "Management of erectile dysfunction". Am Fam Physician 81 (3): 305–12. PMID 20112889.
- Erectile Dysfunction Guideline Update Panel. AUA guideline on the pharmacologic management of premature ejaculation. Linthicum (MD): American Urological Association, Inc.; 2004. 19 p.
- Riley, A.; Segraves, RT; R.T. Segraves (2006). "Treatment of Premature Ejaculation". Int J. Clin Pract. (Blackwell Publishing) 60 (6): 694–697. doi:10.1111/j.1368-5031.2006.00818.x. PMID 16805755. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
- Hengeveld VW et al., Waldinger MD; Hengeveld, MW; Zwinderman, AH; Olivier, B (1998). "Effect of SSRI antidepressants on ejaculation: a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 18 (4): 274–281. doi:10.1097/00004714-199808000-00004. PMID 9690692.
- Williamson, Gail M.; Walters, Andrew S. (01). "Perceived Impact of Limb Amputation on Sexual Activity: A Study of Adult Amputees". The Journal of Sex Research (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (Taylor & Francis Group)) 33 (3): 221–230. doi:10.1080/00224499609551838. ISSN 0022-4499. JSTOR 3813582. OCLC 39109327.
- Majiet, Shanaaz (01). "Disabled Women and Sexuality". Agenda (Agenda Feminist Media) (19): 43–44. doi:10.2307/4065995. JSTOR 4065995.
- Dewolfe, Deborah J.; Livingston, Carolyn A. (August 1, 1982). "Sexual Therapy for a Woman with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Analysis". The Journal of Sex Research (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (Taylor & Francis Group)) 18 (3): 253–263. doi:10.1080/00224498209551151. ISSN 0022-4499. JSTOR 3812217. OCLC 39109327.
- Crowe LC, George WH (May 1989). "Alcohol and human sexuality: review and integration". Psychol Bull 105 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.374. PMID 2660179.
- Richard Evan Jones, Kristin H. López (2006). Human Reproductive Biology. Academic Press. pp. 604 pages. ISBN 0120884658, 9780120884650. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- Diamond, Jared (1997). Why Is Sex Fun?. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03127-7.
- Ozolins, John. "Surrogacy: Exploitation or Violation of Intimacy?". Boston University. Retrieved 13 July 2010. "This concern for the unity of the spouses seems to be why artificial insemination of a surrogate in cases where the wife cannot supply a fertile ovum is preferred, rather than natural insemination, since it does not involve any relationship with the surrogate"
- "Not Every Pregnancy is Welcome". The world health report 2005 – make every mother and child count. World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- "Get "In the Know": 20 Questions About Pregnancy, Contraception and Abortion.". Guttmacher Institute. 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Ventura, SJ, Abma, JC, Mosher, WD, & Henshaw, S. (2007-11-16). "Estimated pregnancy rates for the United States, 1990–2000: An Update. National Vital Statistics Reports, 52 (23)". cdc.gov. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Christine Webber, psychotherapist and Dr David Delvin. "Talking to pre-adolescent children about sex". Broaching the subject. Net Doctor. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- Berkowitz, D & Marsiglio, W (2007). Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities. Journal of Marriage and Family 69 (May 2007): 366–381
- Joan M. Burda (2008). Gay, lesbian, and transgender clients: a lawyer's guide. American Bar Association. p. 437. ISBN 1-59031-944-3, 9781590319444. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Tagami T, Matsubara Y, Hanada H, Naito M. (June 1997). "Differentiation of female chicken primordial germ cells into spermatozoa in male gonads". Dev. Growth Differ. 39 (3): 267–71. doi:10.1046/j.1440-169X.1997.t01-2-00002.x. PMID 9227893.
- "Japanese scientists produce mice without using sperm". Washington Post (Sarasota Herald-Tribune). April 22, 2004. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Elizabeth Bernstein, Laurie Schaffner (2005). Regulating sex: the politics of intimacy and identity. Perspectives on gender. Psychology Press. p. 313. ISBN 0-415-94869-X, 9780415948692. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- "STI Epi Update: Oral Contraceptive and Condom Use". Public Health Agency of Canada. 1998-04-23. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (2001-07-20). "Workshop Summary: Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention" (PDF). Hyatt Dulles Airport, Herndon, Virginia. pp. 13–15. Archived from the original on 2010-03-15. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
- World Health Organization. Effectiveness of male latex condoms in protecting against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections , 2000.
- "Sexual and Reproductive Health: Women and Men". Guttmacher Institute. 2002. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- "Contraceptive Use". Guttmacher Institute. 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- "Sexual Health Statistics for Teenagers and Young Adults in the United States" (PDF). Kaiser Family Foundation. September 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
- Denis Campbell (January 22, 2006). No sex please until we're at least 17 years old, we're British. The Observer.
- "Teen Sex Survey". Channel 4. 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- "Findings from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, Centre for Sexual Health Promotion, Indiana University". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 7, Supplement 5.: 4. 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Wood, H. Sex Cells Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 88 (February 2003) | doi:10.1038/nrn1044
- Doheny, K. (2008) "10 Surprising Health Benefits of Sex," WebMD (reviewed by Chang, L., M.D.)
- Light, K.C. et al., "More frequent partner hugs and higher oxytocin levels are linked to lower blood pressure and heart rate in premenopausal women." Biological Psychology, April 2005; vol 69: pp 5–21.
- Charnetski CJ, Brennan FX. Sexual frequency and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological Reports 2004 Jun;94(3 Pt 1):839-44. Data on length of relationship and sexual satisfaction were not related to the group differences.
- Michael F. Leitzmann; Edward Giovannucci. Frequency of Ejaculation and Risk of Prostate Cancer—Reply. JAMA. (2004);292:329.
- Leitzmann MF, Platz EA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Ejaculation Frequency and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer. JAMA. (2004);291(13):1578–1586.
- Giles GG, Severi G, English DR, et al. (August 2003). "Sexual factors and prostate cancer". BJU Int. 92 (3): 211–6. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04319.x. PMID 12887469.
- Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS (June 2009). "Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life". Prog. Neurobiol. 88 (2): 127–51. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.001. PMC 2689929. PMID 19482229.
- Riley AJ. Oxytocin and coitus. Sexual and Relationship Therapy (1988);3:29–36
- Carter CS. Oxytocin and sexual behavior. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (1992);16(2):131–144
- Thayer, R. E., Newman, J., & McClain, T. M. (1994). Self-regulation of mood: Strategies for changing a bad mood, raising energy, and reducing tension. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 67(5), 910–925.
- Blum, Jeffrey. "Can Good Sex Keep You Young?". WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Weeks, David (1999). Secrets of the Superyoung. Berkley. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-425-17258-2.
- Northrup, Christiane (2010). Women's Bodies, Women's Wisdom: Creating Physical and Emotional Health and Healing. Bantam. p. 960. ISBN 978-0-553-80793-6.
- "STD Trends in the United States: 2010 National Data for Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "Sexually transmitted infections". Fact sheet N° 110. World health Organization. August 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- Jonathan Thompson (November 12, 2006). "New safe sex ads target teens 'on the pull'". The Independent.
- CDC Hepatitis B Information for Health Professionals Accessed May 27, 2010
- "Hepatitis B". World Health Organization. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "HIV/AIDS". World Health Organization. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "HIV/AIDS". Fact sheet N° 360. World health Organization. July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Association of episodic physical and sexual activity with triggering of acute cardiac events: Systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA 305 (12): 1225–1233. March 2011. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.336. Retrieved March 23, 2011. "Acute cardiac events were significantly associated with episodic physical and sexual activity; this association was attenuated among persons with high levels of habitual physical activity"
- The Joy of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking (1972)
- Bramlett, M. D. and W. D. Mosher (2002). "Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States." Vital & Health Statistics – Series 23, Data from the National Survey of Family Growth 22: 1–93.
- Karney B. R., Bradbury T. N. (1995). "The longitudinal course of marital quality and stability: A review of theory, methods, and research". Psychological Bulletin 118 (1): 3–34.
- "Predicting sexual satisfaction in women: Implications for counselor education and training". Journal of Counseling & Development 82(2): 158–166. 2004. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Ponton, Lynn (2000). The Sex Lives of Teenagers. New York: Dutton. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-452-28260-5.
- Garn, SM. Physical growth and development. In: Friedman SB, Fisher M, Schonberg SK. , editors. Comprehensive Adolescent Health Care. St Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 1992. Retrieved on 2009-02-20
- Jayson, Sharon (2005-10-19). "Teens define sex in new ways". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- Mark O'Connell (March 9, 2005). "The epidemic of meaningless teen sex". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- (Caspi et al.1993: Lanza and Collins, 2002)
- (Stattin & Magnussion, 1990).
- Denise D. Hallfors PhD, Martha W. Waller PhD, Daniel Bauer PhD, Carol A. Ford MD, and Carolyn T. Halpern PhD (2005). "Which Comes First in Adolescence—Sex and Drugs or Depression?" (PDF). American Journal of Preventive Medicine 29 (3): 163–170. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.06.002. PMID 16168864.
- Katie Couric (2005). "Nearly 3 in 10 young teens 'sexually active'". MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-01-21.
- "Sex Education in the U.S.: Policy and Politics" (PDF). Issue Update. Kaiser Family Foundation. October 2002. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- "Peer rejection tied to early sex in pre-teens" (PDF). Issue Update. MedlinePlus. October 2002. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- R.S.Goya, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur, India (2005). "Socio-psychological Constructs of Premarital Sex Behavior among Adolescent Girls in India" (PDF). Abstract. Princeton University. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- Madsen S., Collins W. A. (2005). Differential predictions of young adult romantic relationships from transitory vs. longer romantic experiences during adolescence. Presented at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development, Atlanta, GA.
- Seiffge-Krenke I., Lang J. (2002). Forming and maintaining romantic relations from early adolescence to young adulthood: evidence of a developmental sequence. Presented at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 19th, New Orleans, LA.
- Pearce M. J., Boergers J., Prinstein M.J., (2002). Adolescent obesity, overt and relational peer victimization, and romantic relationships. Obesity Research, 10, 386–93.
- Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J., Siebenbruner, J., & Collins, W.A. (2004). A prospective study of intraindividual and peer influences on adolescents’ heterosexual romantic and sexual behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33, 381–394.
- William N. Eskridge Jr. Dishonorable Passions: Sodomy Laws in America, 1861–2003. (2008) Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-01862-7
- Noelle N. R. Quenivet. Sexual Offenses in Armed Conflict & International Law. (2005) Hotei Publishing. ISBN 1-57105-341-7
- Marshall Cavendish Corporation Staff. Sex and Society. (2009) Cavendish, Marshall Corporation. p143-144. ISBN 0-7614-7906-6 
- Jerrold S. Greenberg, Clint E. Bruess, Sarah C. Conklin. (2010). Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. p 515. ISBN 0-7637-7660-2 .
- Karen L. Kinnear. (2007) Childhood sexual abuse: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-905-0 
- Reed, E. J. (1997). "Criminal Law and the Capacity of Mentally Retarded Persons to Consent to Sexual Activity". Virginia Law Review 83 (4): 799–827. doi:10.2307/1073749. JSTOR 1073749.
- The Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Commencement) Order 2004 (S.I. 2004/874)
- R v Gaston 73 Cr App R 164, CA
- "Zoophilia," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009; Retrieved 24 January 2009.
- Ascione, Frank (28 February 2010). The International Handbook of Animal Abuse and Cruelty: Theory, Research, and Application. ISBN 978-1-55753-565-8.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. 2000. ISBN 0-89042-025-4.
- Milner, JS; Dopke CA (2008). "Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified: Psychopathology and theory". In Laws DR & O'Donohue WT. Sexual Deviance, Second Edition: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 384–418. ISBN 1-59385-605-9.
- Money, John (1988). Lovemaps: Clinical Concepts of Sexual/Erotic Health and Pathology, Paraphilia, and Gender Transposition in Childhood, Adolescence, and Maturity. Buffalo, N.Y: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-456-7.
- Seto, MC; Barbaree HE (2000). "Paraphilias". In Hersen M; Van Hasselt VB. Aggression and violence: an introductory text. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 198–213. ISBN 0-205-26721-1.
- R v R'Rue (1838) 8 C & P 641; R v Allen (1839) 9 C & P 31
- Archbold Criminal Pleading, Evidence and Practice, 1999, paragraph 20–24
- "Laws of New York, leginfo.state.ny". Public.leginfo.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
- Janet Afary. Sexual Politics in Modern Iran. (2009) Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-89846-3
- Smith, Janet E. "The Christian View of Sex: A Time for Apologetics, Not Apologies – by Janet E Smith, University of Dallas". Natural Family Planning Outreach. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- Gordon, Jim and Carrie. "Christian Views on Sex". The Intimate Couple. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- "Christianity and Sex". Books and Articles: Scholarly Publications on The Family. The Family International (in Family Dossier). Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- Taylor, Ross. "Oral Sex Within Marriage". Masturbation and Oral Sex: A Christian Approach. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- For the Strength of Youth: Sexual Purity
- Judaism 101:. "Kosher Sex". Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- Don S. Browning, Martha Christian Green, John Witte. Sex, marriage, and family in world religions. (2006) Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13116-X 
- Abdul Rahman bin Abdul Karim al-Sheha. Islamic Perspective of Sex (2003) Saudi Arabia. ISBN 9960-43-140-1
- Fatima M. D'Oyen. The Miracle of Life. (2007)Islamic Foundation (UK). ISBN 0-86037-355-X
- Thompson, Lady Gwen; Wiccan-Pagan Potpourri; Green Egg, №69; Ostara 1974
- Hans Holzer. The Truth about Witchcraft (1971) Doubleday. page 128. ISBN 0-09-004860-1
- Kenneth E. Bowers. God Speaks Again: An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. (2004) Baha'i Publishing. ISBN 1-931847-12-6
- John A. Buehrens and Forrest Church. A Chosen Faith: An Introduction to Unitarian Universalism. (1998) Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-1617-9
- Hodgkinson, Liz (2002). Peace and Purity: The Story of the Brahma Kumaris a Spiritual Revolution. HCI. pp. 2–29. ISBN 1-55874-962-4.
- Babb, Lawrence A. (1987). Redemptive Encounters: Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition (Comparative Studies in Religion and Society). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-7069-2563-7. "Sexual intercourse is unnecessary for reproduction because the souls that enter the world during the first half of the Cycle are in possession of a special yogic power (yog bal) by which they conceive children"
- Barrett, David V (2001). The New Believers. Cassell & Co. pp. 265. ISBN 0-304-35592-5.
- Chase, Stacey (July 23, 2006). "The Last Ones Standing". The Boston Globe.
- William Skudlarek. Demythologizing Celibacy: Practical Wisdom from Christian and Buddhist Monasticism. (2008) Liturgical Press. ISBN 0-8146-2947-4
- Naomi R. Cahn, June Carbone (2010). Red families v. blue families: legal polarization and the creation of culture. Oxford University Press US. p. 288. ISBN 0-19-537217-4, 9780195372175. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- Donald J. Cantor (2006). Same-sex marriage: the legal and psychological evolution in America. Wesleyan University Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-8195-6812-0, 9780819568120. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- American Psychological Association (2004). "Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage". Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- American Psychiatric Association (2005). "Support of Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Civil Marriage". Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- K. Smith, Susan (July 30, 2009). "Marriage a Civil Right, not Sacred Rite". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- "Decision in Perry v. Schwarzenegger". ecf.cand.uscourts.gov. July 31, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Chelicerata: Araneae". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 571–584. ISBN 0-03-025982-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sexual intercourse|
- The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality
- Glossario di Sessuologia clinica – Glossary of clinical sexology
- Janssen, D. F., Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas
- Introduction to Animal Reproduction
- Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
- Synonyms for sexual intercourse – the WikiSaurus list of synonyms and slang words for sexual intercourse in many languages